2016
4
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Clean and Polluting DG Types Planning in Stochastic Price Conditions and DG Unit Uncertainties
برنامه ریزی واحدهای پاک و آلاینده تولید پراکنده در شرایط تصادفی قیمت و عدم قطعیت واحدهای تولید پراکنده
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This study presents a dynamic way in a DG planning problem instead of the last static or pseudodynamic planning point of views. A new way in modeling the DG units’ output power and the load uncertainties based on the probability rules is proposed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis on the stochastic nature of the electricity price and global fuel price is carried out through a proposed model. Six types of clean and conventional DG units are included in the planning process. The presented dynamic planning problem is solved considering encouraging and punishment functions. The imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) as a strong evolutionary strategy is employed to solve the DG planning problem. The proposed models and the proposed problem are applied on the 9bus and 33bus test distribution systems. The results show a significant improvement in the total revenue of the distribution system in all of the defined scenarios.
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1
15


M.
Sadeghi
Center of Excellence for power system automation and operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Center of Excellence for power system automation
Iran
mahmood.sadeghi@gmail.com


M.
Kalantar
Center of Excellence for power system automation and operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Center of Excellence for power system automation
Iran
ad@gmail.com
Distributed generation
Investment time
Dynamic programming
Uncertainty
Monte carlo simulation
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Jin, "Determining the optimal capacity of renewable distributed generation using restoration methods," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems , vol. 29, pp. 20012013, 2014. ##[14] N. R. Battu, A. R. Abhyankar and N. Senroy, "DG planning with amalgamation of economic and reliability considerations," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 73, pp. 273282, 2015. ##[15] S. Mallikarjun and H. F. Lewis, "Energy technology allocation for distributed energy resources: A strategic technologypolicy framework," Energy, vol. 72, pp. 783799, 8/1/ 2014. ##[16] S. Cheng, M.Y. Chen and P. J. Fleming, "Improved multiobjective particle swarm optimization with preference strategy for optimal DG integration into the distribution system," Neurocomputing, vol. 148, pp. 2329, 2015. ##[17] Y. M. Atwa, E. F. ElSaadany, M. M. A. Salama and R. Seethapathy, "Optimal renewable resources mix for distribution system energy loss minimization," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 25, pp. 360370, 2010. ##[18] H. Siahkali and M. Vakilian, "Stochastic unit commitment of wind farms integrated in power system," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 80, pp. 10061017, 2010. ##[19] E. AtashpazGargari and C. Lucas, "Imperialist competitive algorithm: an algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition," in Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 46614667, 2007. ##[20] M. Abdollahi, A. Isazadeh and D. Abdollahi, "Imperialist competitive algorithm for solving systems of nonlinear equations," Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 65, pp. 18941908, 2013. ##[21] M. A. Ahmadi, M. Ebadi, A. Shokrollahi and S. M. J. 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RahimiKian, "A fuzzy environmentaltechnicaleconomic model for distributed generation planning," Energy, vol. 36, pp. 34373445, 2011. ##[27] Historical data of Iran Industrial power from 1980 to 1984. ##[28] N. Acharya, P. Mahat, and N. Mithulananthan, "An analytical approach for DG allocation in primary distribution network," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 28, pp. 669678, 2006.##]
Low Voltage Ride Through Enhancement Based on Improved Direct Power Control of DFIG under Unbalanced and Harmonically Distorted Grid Voltage
Low Voltage Ride Through Enhancement Based on Improved Direct Power Control of DFIG under Unbalanced and Harmonically Distorted Grid Voltage
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In the conventional structure of the wind turbines along with the doublyfed induction generator (DFIG), the stator is directly connected to the power grid. Therefore, voltage changes in the grid result in severe transient conditions in the stator and rotor. In cases where the changes are severe, the generator will be disconnected from the grid and consequently the grid stability will be attenuated. In this paper, a completely review of conventional methodes for DFIG control under fault conditions is done and then a series grid side converter (SGSC) with sliding mode control method is proposed to enhance the fault ride through capability and direct power control of machine. By applying this controlling strategy, the over current in the rotor and stator windings will totally be attenuated without using additional equipments like as crowbar resistance; Moreover, the DC link voltage oscillations will be attenuated to a great extent and the generator will continue operating without being disconnected from the grid. In addition, the proposed method is able to improve the direct power control of DFIG in harmonically grid voltage condition. To validate the performance of this method, the simulation results are presented under the symmetrical and asymmetrical faults and harmonically grid voltage conditions and compared with the other conventional methods.
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28


Ahmadreza
Nafar
Shahrekord Univrsity
Shahrekord Univrsity
Iran
ahmad.nafar70@yahoo.com


Gholam Reza
Arab Markadeh
Shahrkord University
Shahrkord University
Iran
arabgh@eng.sku.ac.ir


Amir
Elahi
Shahrekord University
Shahrekord University
Iran
elahiamirsku@gmail.com


Reza
pouraghababa
Isfahan Regional Electrical Company
Isfahan Regional Electrical Company
Iran
pouraghababa@yahoo.com
DFIG
Sliding Mode Control
Unbalanced Grid Voltage
Low Voltage Ride Through
[[1] H. T. Jadhav and R. Roy, “A comprehensive review on the grid integration of doubly fed induction generator,” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 49, pp. 818, 2013. ##[2] M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, “A review of grid code technical requirementsfor wind farms,” IET Proceedings on Renewable Power Generation., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 308332, 2009. ##[3] A. Geniusz, S. Engelhardt and J. Kretschmann, “Optimised fault ride through performance for wind energy systems with doubly fed induction generator,” in Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition, Brussels, pp. 19, 2008. ##[4] M. Rahimi and M. Parniani, “Gridfault ridethrough analysis and control of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 184195, 2010. ##[5] A. H. Kasem, E. F. E1Saadany, H. H. E1Tamaly and M. A. A. Wahab, “An improved fault ridethrough strategy for doubly fed induction generatorbased windturbines,” IET Proceedings on Renewable Power Generation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 201214, 2008. ##[6] J. Vidal, G. Abad, J. Arza and S. Aurtenechea, “Singlephase DC crowbar topologies for low voltage ride through fulfillmentof highpower doubly fed induction generatorbased wind turbines,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 768781, 2013. ##[7] L. Peng and Y. Li, “Improved crowbar control strategy of DFIG based wind turbines for grid fault ridethrough,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19321938, 2009. ##[8] M. Rahimi and M. Parniani, “Efficient control scheme of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators for low voltage ridethrough capability enhancement,” IET Proceedings on Renewable Power Generation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 242252, 2010. ##[9] C. Wessels, F. Gebhardt and F. Wilhelm Fuchs, “Fault ridethrough of a DFIG wind turbine using a dynamic voltage restorer during symmetrical and asymmetrical grid faults,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 807815, 2011. ##[10] O. Abdel, B. Nasiri and A. Nasiri, “Series voltage compensation for DFIG wind turbine lowvoltage ridethrough solution,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 272281, 2011. ##[11] E. ElHawatt, M.S. Hamad, K.H. Ahmed and I.F. El Arabawy, “Low voltage ridethrough capability enhancement of a DFIG wind turbine using a dynamic voltage restorer with adaptive fuzzy PI controller,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, Spain, pp. 12341239, 2013. ##[12] I. Spyros, G. kavanoudis and C. S. Demoulias, “FRT capability of a DFIG in isolated grids with dynamic voltage restorer and energy storage,” in proceedings of the IEEE 5th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG),pp. 18, 2014. ##[13] B. B. Ambati, P. Kanjiya and V. Khadkikar, “A low component count series voltage compensation scheme for DFIG WTs to enhance fault ridethrough capability,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 110, 2015. ##[14] L. Yang, Z. Xu, J. Østergaard, Z.Y. Dongand K. P. Wong, “Advanced control strategy of DFIG wind turbines for power system fault ride through,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 713722, 2012. ##[15] M. Darabian, A. Jalilvand and R. Noroozian, “Combined use of sensitivity analysis and hybrid waveletpsoanfis to improve dynamic performance of DFIGbased wind generation,” Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 4959, 2014. ##[16] H. Khorramdel, B. Khorramdel, M. Tayebi Khorrami and H. Rastegar, “A multiobjective economic load dispatch considering accessibility of wind power with hereandnow approach,” Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 6073, 2014. ##[17] M. I. Martinez, G. Tapia, A. Susperregui and H. Camblong, “Slidingmode control for DFIG rotor and gridside converters under unbalanced and harmonically distorted grid voltage,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 328339, 2012. ##[18] L. Changjin, X. Dehong, Z. Nan, F. Blaabjerg and Ch. Min, “DCvoltage fluctuation elimination through a DCcapacitor current control for DFIG converters under unbalanced grid voltage conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no.7, pp. 32063218, 2013. ##[19] J. Vidal, G. Abad, J. Arza and S. Aurtenechea, “Singlephase DC crowbar topologies for low voltage ride through fulfillment of highpower doubly fed induction generatorbased wind turbines,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 768781, 2013. ##[20] G. Pannell, B. Zahawi, D. J. Atkinson and P. Missailidis, “Evaluation of the performance of a DClink brake chopper as a DFIG lowvoltage faultridethrough device,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 535542, 2013. ##[21] M. Wang, W. Xu, H. Jia and X. Yu, “A new method for DFIG fault ride through using resistance and capacity crowbar circuit,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Conference onIndustrial Technology, pp. 20042009, 2013. ##[22] P. Cheng and H. Nian, “An improved control strategy for DFIG system anddynamic voltage restorer under grid voltage dip,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp.1868 1873, 2012. ##[23] S. Zhang, K. J. Tseng, S. S. Choi, T. D. Nguyen and D. L. Yao, “Advanced control of series voltage compensation to enhance wind turbine ride through,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 763772, 2012. ##[24] P. S. Flannery and G. Venkataramanan, “Evaluation of voltage sag ridethrough of a doubly fed induction generator wind turbine with series grid side converter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 18391845, 2007. ##[25] V. Utkin, J. Guldner and J. Shi, “Sliding mode control in electromechanical systems,” London, U.K., Taylor and Francis, 1999. ##V. Utkin, “Sliding mode control design principles and applications to electric drives,” IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2336, 1993.##]
Optimal emergency demand response program integrated with multiobjective dynamic economic emission dispatch problem
Optimal emergency demand response program integrated with multiobjective dynamic economic emission dispatch problem
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2
Nowadays, demand response programs (DRPs) play an important role in price reduction and reliability improvement. In this paper, an optimal integrated model for the emergency demand response program (EDRP) and dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) problem has been developed. Customer’s behavior is modeled based on the price elasticity matrix (PEM) by which the level of DRP is determined for a given type of customer. Valvepoint loading effect, prohibited operating zones (POZs), and the other nonlinear constraints make the DEED problem into a nonconvex and nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problem. In the proposed model, the fuel cost and emission are minimized and the optimal incentive is determined simultaneously. The imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) has solved the combined problem. The proposed model is applied on a ten units test system and results indicate the practical benefits of the proposed model. Finally, depending on different policies, DRPs are prioritized by using strategy success indices.
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29
41


Ehsan
Dehnavi
Electrical Engineering Departments, Engineering Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Electrical Engineering Departments, Engineering
Iran
ehsan_dehnavi70@yahoo.com


Hamdi
Abdi,
Razi University (Kermanshah)
Razi University (Kermanshah)
Iran
hamdiabdi@razi.ac.ir


Farid
Mohammadi
Electrical Engineering Departments, Engineering Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Electrical Engineering Departments, Engineering
Iran
ifaridmohammadi@yahoo.com
Emergency demand response program
Dynamic economic emission dispatch
Imperialist competitive algorithm
Optimal incentive
Strategy success indices
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Shahidehpour, “Optimal demand response aggregation in wholesale electricity markets,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, pp. 19571965, 2013. ##[7] M. Alipour, K. Zare and B. MohammadiIvatloo, “Short term scheduling of combined heat and power generation units in the presence of demand response programs,” Energy, vol. 71, pp. 289301, 2014. ##[8] M. Kazemi, B. MohammadiIvatlooandM. Ehsan, “Risk constrained strategic bidding of Gencos considering demand response,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 30.1, pp. 376384, 2015. ##[9] M. M. Sahebi, E.A. Duki, M. Kia, A. Soroudi and M. Ehsan, “Simultaneous emergency demand response programming and unit commitent programming in comparison with interruptible load contracts,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 6.7, pp. 605611, 2012. ##[10] S. Nojavan, B. MohammadiIvatloo and K. Zare, “Optimal bidding strategy of electricity retailers using robust optimization approach considering time of use rate demand response programs under market price uncertainties,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 9.4, pp. 328338, 2015. ##[11] M. Parvania and M. Fotuhi Firuzabad, “Demand response scheduling by stochastic SCUC,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, pp. 8998, 2010. ##[12] F. H. Magnago, J. Alemany and J. Lin, “Impact of demand response resources on unit commitment and dispatch in a dayahead electricity market,” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 68, pp. 142149, 2015. ##[13] H. R. Arasteh, M.Parsa Moghaddam, M.K.SheikhElEslami and A. Abdollahi, “Integrating commercial demand response resources with unit commitment,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 51, pp. 153161, 2013. ##[14] J. Aghaei and M.I. Alizadeh. “Robust nk contingency constrained unit commitment with ancillary service demand response program,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 8, pp. 19281936, 2014. ##[15] Ch. Zhao, J. Wang, J. P. Watson and Y. Guan, “Multistage robust unit commitment considering wind and demand response uncertainties,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, pp. 27082717, 2013. ##[16] Y. Chen and J. Li. “Comparison of security constrained economic dispatch formulations to incorporate reliability standards on demand response resources into Midwest ISO cooptimized energy and ancillary service market,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 81, pp. 17861795, 2011. ##[17] A. Ashfaq, S. Yingyun and A. Zia Khan, “Optimization of economic dispatch problem integrated with stochastic demand side response,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Energy and Power Systems, pp. 116121, 2014. ##[18] N. I. Nwulu and X. Xia, “Multiobjective dynamic economic emission dispatch of electric power generation integrated with game theory based demand response programs,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 89, pp. 963974, 2015. ##[19] H. Khorramdel, B. Khorramdel, M. T. Khorrami and H. Rastegar, “A multiobjective economic load dispatch considering accessibility of wind power with hereandnow (hn) approach,” Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 4959, 2014. ##[20] Sh. Jiang, Zh. Ji and Y. Shen, “A novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm for solving economic emission load dispatch problems with various practical constraints,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 55, pp. 628644, 2014. ##[21] D. C. Secui, “A new modified artificial bee colony algorithm for the economic dispatch problem,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 89, pp. 4362, 2014. ##[22] L. Wang and L.P. Li, “An effective differential harmony search algorithm for the solving nonconvex economic load dispatch problems,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 44 pp. 832843, 2013. ##[23] A. Hatefi and R. Kazemzadeh, “Intelligent tuned harmony search for solving economic dispatch problem with valvepoint effects and prohibited operating zones,” Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 8495, 2013. ##[24] L. Benasla, A. Belmadani and M. Rahli, “Spiral optimization algorithm for solving combined economic and emission dispatch,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 62, pp. 163174, 2014. ##[25] A. Gargari, “Imperialist competitive algorithm: An algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation,pp. 46614667, 2007. ##[26] B. Mohammadiivatloo, A. Rabiee, A. Soroudi and M. Ehsan, “Imperialist competitive algorithm for solving nonconvex dynamic economic power dispatch,” Energy, vol. 44, pp. 228240, 2012. ##[27] R. Roche, L. Idoumghar, B. Blunier, and A. Miraoui. “Imperialist competitive algorithm for dynamic optimization of economic dispatch in power systems,” SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg, vol. 7401, pp. 217228, 2012, ##[28] H. Aalami, M. Parsa Moghadam and G. R. Yousefi, “Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets,” Electric Power System Research, vol. 80, pp. 426435, 2010. ##[29] N. Pandita, A. Tripathia, Sh. Tapaswia and M. Panditb, “An improved bacterial foraging algorithm for combined static/dynamic environmental economic dispatch,” Applied Soft Computing, vol. 12, pp. 35003513, 2012. ##[30] A. Abdollahi, M. Parsa Moghaddam, M. Rashidinejad and M. K. SheikhElEslami, “Investigation of economic and environmentaldriven demand response measures incorporating UC,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, pp. 1225, 2012. ##[31] R. Zhang, J. Zhou, L. Mo, Sh. Ouyang and X. Liao, “Economic environmental dispatch using an enhanced multiobjective cultural algorithm,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 99, pp. 1829, 2013. ##[32] Staff Report, “Assessment of demand response and advanced metering,” FERC, Available: http://www.FERC.gov Dec. 2008.##]
MultiStage DCAC Converter Based on new DCDC converter for energy conversion
MultiStage DCAC Converter Based on new DCDC converter for energy conversion
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2
This paper proposes a multistage power generation system suitable for renewable energy sources, which is composed of a DCDC power converter and a threephase inverter. The DCDC power converter is a boost converter to convert the output voltage of the DC source into two voltage sources. The DCDC converter has two switches operates like a continuous conduction mode. The input current of DCDC converter has low ripple and voltage of semiconductors is lower than the output voltage. The threephase inverter is a Ttype inverter. This inverter requires two balance DC sources. The inverter part converts the two output voltage sources of DCDC power converter into a fivelevel line to line AC voltage. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance, including AC voltage generation. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the converter.
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53


Mohammadreza
Banaei
Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University
Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University
Iran
m.banaei@azaruniv.ac.ir
Renewable energy
multistage inverter
DCDC converter
multilevel inverter
[[1] M. Allahnoori, Sh. Kazemi, H. Abdi and R. Keyhani, “Reliability assessment of distribution systems in presence of microgrids considering uncertainty in generation and load demand,”Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 113 120, 2014. ##[2] K. N. Reddy and V. Agarwal, “Utility interactive hybrid distributed generation scheme with compensation feature,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 666673, 2007. ##[3] D. Sera, R. Teodorescu, J. Hantschel and M. Knoll, “Optimized maximum power point tracker for fastchanging environmental conditions,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 26292637, 2008. ##[4] U. S. Selamogullari, D. A. Torrey and S. Salon, “A systems approach for a standalone residential fuel cell power inverter design,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 741749, 2010. ##[5] Z. Zhao, M. Xu, Q. Chen, J.S Jason Lai and Y. H. Cho, “Derivation, analysis, and implementation of a boostbuck converterbased highefficiency pv inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp.13041313, 2012. ##[6] J. M. Shen, H. L. Jou and J. C. Wu, “Novel transformerless gridconnected power converter with negative grounding for photovoltaic generation system,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp.18181829, 2012. ##[7] D. C. Lu, K. W. Cheng and Y. S. Lee, “A singleswitch continuousconductionmode boost converter with reduced reverserecovery and switching losses,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 767776, Aug. 2003. ##[8] J. E. Baggio, H. L. Hey, H. A. Grundling, H. Pinheiro and J. R. Pinheiro, “Discreate control for threelevel boost pfc converter,” in Proceedings of the 24th International Telecommunications Energy Conference, pp.627633, 2002. ##[9] J. M. Kwon, B. H. Kwon and K. H. Nam, “Threephase photovoltaic system with threelevel boosting mppt control,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 5, pp.23192327, 2008. ##[10] L. S. Yang, T. J. Liang and J. F. Chen, “Transformerless DCDC converters with high stepup voltage gain,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no.8, pp. 31443152, 2009. ##[11] X. Ruan, B. Li, Q. Chen, S. Tan and C. K. Tse, “Fundamental considerations of threelevel DC–DC converters: topologies, analyses, and control,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 37333743, 2008. ##[12] W. Li and X. He, “Review of nonisolated highstepup DC/DC converters in photovoltaic gridconnected applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 12391250, 2011. ##[13] Y. Cheng, C. Qian, M. L. Crow, S. Pekarek and S. Atcitty, “A comparison of diodeclamped and cascaded multilevel converters for a STATCOM with energy storage”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 5, 15121521, 2006. ##[14] S. Laali, E. Babaei and M. B. B. Sharifian, “Reduction the number of power electronic devices of a cascaded multilevel inverter based on new general topology,”Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering ,vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 8190, 2014. ##[15] M. R. Banaei and E. Salary, “New multilevel inverter with reduction of switches and gate driver”, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, pp. 11291136, 2011. ##[16] N. A. Rahim and J. Selvaraj, “Multistring fivelevel inverter with novel PWM control scheme for PV application,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 21112123, 2010. ##[17] B. Axelrod, Y. Berkovich and A. Ioinovici, “Switchedcapacitor/switchedinductor structures for getting transformer less hybrid DCDC pwm converters,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 55, no. 2, pp.687696, 2008. ##[18] J. M. Shen, H. L. Jou, J. C. Wu and K. D. Wu, “Fivelevel inverter for renewable power generation system,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 257266, 2013. ##[19] S. R. Pulikanti, G. Konstantinou and V. G. Agelidis, “Hybrid sevenlevel cascaded active neutralpointclampedbased multilevel converter under SHEPWM,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 47944804, 2013. ##[20] Y. Ounejjar, K. AlHadded and L. A. Dessaint, “A novel sixband hysteresis control for the packed u cells sevenlevel converter: experimental validation,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 38083816, 2012. ##[21] S. Khomfoi and L. M. Tolbert, Multilevel power converters. Power electronics handbook. Elsevier; 2007, pp. 45182 [chapter 17]. ##[22] K. A. Corzine, M. W. Wielebski, F. Z. Peng and J. Wang, “Control of cascaded multilevel inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 732738, 2004. ##[23] E. A. Mahrous, N. A. Rahim, W. P. Hew and K. M. Nor, “Proposed nine switches five level inverter with low switching frequencies for linear generator applications”, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drives Systems, pp. 648653, 2005. ##[24] E. A. Mahrous, N.A. Rahim and W. P. Hew, “Threephase threelevel voltage source inverter with low switching frequency based on the twolevel inverter topology”, IET Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 637641, 2007.##]
An LCLfiltered Singlephase Multilevel Inverter for Grid Integration of PV Systems
An LCLfiltered Singlephase Multilevel Inverter for Grid Integration of PV Systems
2
2
Integration of the PV into the electrical grid needs power electronic interface. This power electronic interface should have some key features and should come up with grid codes. One of the important criteria is the quality and harmonic contents of the current being injected to the grid. Highorder harmonics of the grid current should be very limited (lower than 0.3% of the fundamental current). Beside the topology of the power electronic interface, the output filter also affects the quality of the grid current. In this paper, a 5level inverter is presented for grid integration of PV systems along with its output LCL filter design. Analytical calculation of losses for the 5level inverter and the output LCL filter is presented. It is also compared to the Hbridge inverter in terms of output voltage and current harmonics, and the overall losses. Secondorder generalized integral phase locked loop is used to synchronize the system with the grid voltage and the proportional resonant (PR) with harmonic compensation control method is used to control the output current. The proposed system has been simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment to verify its operation and control.
1

54
65


Mohammad
Farhadi Kangarlu
Urmia University
Urmia University
Iran
mfkangarlu@gmail.com


Ebrahim
Babaei
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Iran
ebabaei@tabrizu.ac.ir


Frede
Blaabjerg
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg
Iran
fbl@et.aau.dk
multilevel inverter
PV
LCL filter
MPPT
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Kolhe, “Technoeconomic optimum sizing of a standalone solar photovoltaic system,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 511519, 2009. ##[14] A. Bouabdallah, J. C. Olivier, S. Bourguet, M. Machmoum and E. Schaeffer, "Safe sizing methodology applied to a standalone photovoltaic system," Renewable Energy, vol. 80, pp. 266274, 2015. ##[15] R. Bakhshi, J. Sadeh and H. R. Mosaddegh, “Optimal economic designing of gridconnected photovoltaic systems with multiple inverters using linear and nonlinear module models based on genetic algorithm,” Renewable Energy, vol. 72, pp. 386394, 2014. ##[16] M. Farhadi Kangarlu and E. Babaei, “A generalized cascaded multilevel inverter using series connection of submultilevel inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 625636, 2013. ##[17] M. Farhadi Kangarlu and M. R. Alizadeh Pahlavani, “Cascaded multilevel converter based superconducting magnetic energy storage system for frequency control,” Energy, vol. 70, pp. 504513, 2014. ##[18] S. Daher, J. Schmid and F. L. M. Antunes, “Multilevel inverter topologies for standalone PV systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 27032712, 2008. ##[19] K. Bandara, T. Sweet and J. Ekanayake, “Photovoltaic applications for offgrid electrification using novel multilevel inverter technology with energy storage,” Renewable Energy, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 8288, 2012. ##[20] S. BusquetsMong, J. Rocabert, P. Rodriguez, S. Alepuz and J. Bordonau, “Multilevel diodeclamped converter for photovoltaic generators with independent voltage control of each solar array,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 27132723, 2008. ##[21] E. Ozdemir, S. Ozdemir and L.M. Tolbert, “Fundamentalfrequencymodulated sixlevel diodeclamped multilevel inverter for threephase standalone photovoltaic system,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 44074415, 2009. ##[22] R. Gonzalez, E. Gubia, J. Lopez and L. Marroyo, “Transformerless singlephase multilevelbased photovoltaic inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 26942702, 2008. ##[23] E. Villanueva, P. Correa, J. Rodriguez and M. Pacas, “Control of a singlephase cascaded Hbridge multilevel inverter for gridconnected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 43994406, 2009. ##[24] C. Cecati, F. Ciancetta and P. Siano, “A multilevel inverter for photovoltaic systems with fuzzy logic control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 41154125, 2010. ##[25] J. Sastry, P. Bakas, H. Kim, L. Wang and A. Marinopoulos, “Evaluation of cascaded Hbridge inverter for utilityscale photovoltaic systems,” Renewable Energy, vol. 69, pp. 208218, 2014. ##[26] J. Chavarría, D. Biel, F. Guinjoan, C. Meza and J. J. Negroni, “Energybalance control of PV cascaded multilevel gridconnected inverters under levelshifted and phaseshifted PWMs,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 98111, 2013. ##[27] Z. Wang, S. Fan, Y. Zheng and M. Cheng, “Design and analysis of a CHB converter based PVbattery hybrid system for better electromagnetic compatibility,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 45304533, 2012. ##[28] J. Me, B. Xiao, Ke Shen, L.M. Tolbert and J. Y. Zheng, “Modular multilevel inverter with new modulation method and its application to photovoltaic gridconnected generator,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 50635073, 2013. ##[29] G. Bin, J. Dominic, L. JihSheng, C. ChienLiang, T. LaBella and C. Baifeng, "High reliability and efficiency singlephase transformerless inverter for gridconnected photovoltaic systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 22352245, 2013. ##[30] L. Wuhua, G. Yunjie, L. Haoze, C. Wenfeng, H. Xiangning and X. Changliang, "Topology review and derivation methodology of singlephase transformer less photovoltaic inverters for leakage current suppression," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 45374551, 2015. ##[31] B. N. Alajmi, K. H. Ahmed, G. P. Adam and B. W. Williams, "Singlephase singlestage transformer less gridconnected PV system," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 26642676, 2013. ##[32] T. K. S. Freddy, N. A. Rahim, H. WooiPing and C. Hang Seng, "Comparison and analysis of singlephase transformer less gridconnected PV inverters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 53585369, 2014. ##[33] G. Buticchi, D. Barater, E. Lorenzani, C. Concari and G. Franceschini, "A ninelevel gridconnected converter topology for singlephase transformerless PV systems," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 39513960, 2014. ##[34] E. Babaei, M. Farhadi Kangarlu and M. Sabahi, “Extended multilevel converters: An attempt to reduce the number of independent DC voltage sources in cascaded multilevel converters,” IET Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 157166, 2014. ##[35] M. Ciobotaru, R. Teodorescu and F. Blaabjerg, “A new singlephase PLLstructure based on second order generalized integrator,” in Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, pp. 16, 2006. ##[36] Y. Yang, F. Blaabjerg and Z. Zou, "Benchmarking of grid fault modes in singlephase gridconnected photovoltaic systems", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 21672176, 2013. ##[37] P. Channegowda and V. John, “Filter optimization for grid interactive voltage source inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 41064114, 2010. ##[38] M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg and S. Hansen, “Design and control of an LCL filterbased threephase active rectifier,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 12811291, 2005. ##[39] W. Wu, Y. He and F. Blaabjerg, “An LLCL power filter for singlephase gridtied inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 782789, 2012. ##[40] F. Blaabjerg, U. Jaeger, S. MunkNielsen and J. K. Pedersen, “Power losses in PWMVSI inverter usinh NPT or PT IGBT devices,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 358367, 1995. ##[41] W. Eberle, Z. Zhang, Y. F. Liu and P. C. Sen, “A practical switching loss model for buck voltage regulators,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 700713, 2009.##]
Control of InverterInterfaced Distributed Generation Units for Voltage and Current Harmonics Compensation in GridConnected Microgrids
Control of InverterInterfaced Distributed Generation Units for Voltage and Current Harmonics Compensation in GridConnected Microgrids
2
2
In this paper, a new approach is proposed for voltage and current harmonics compensation in gridconnected microgrids (MGs). If sensitive loads are connected to the point of common coupling (PCC), compensation is carried out in order to reduce PCC voltage harmonics. In absence of sensitive loads at PCC, current harmonics compensation scenario is selected in order to avoid excessive injection of harmonics by the main grid. In both scenarios, compensation is performed by the interface converters of distributed generation (DG) units. Also, to decrease the asymmetry among phase impedances of MG, a novel structure is proposed to generate virtual impedance. At fundamental frequency, the proposed structure for the virtual impedance improves the control of the fundamental component of power, and at harmonic frequencies, it acts to adaptively improve nonlinear load sharing among DG units. In the structures of the proposed harmonics compensator and the proposed virtual impedance, a selftuning filter (STF) is used for separating the fundamental component from the harmonic components. This STF decreases the number of phase locked loops (PLLs). Simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show the efficiency of the proposed approach in improving load sharing and decreasing voltage and current harmonics.
1

66
82


Reza
Ghanizadeh
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, University
Iran
r_ghanizadeh@birjand.ac.ir


Mahmoud
Ebadian
Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
Department of Electrical and computer Engineering,
Iran
mebadian@birjand.ac.ir


Gevork B.
Gharehpetian
Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir
Iran
grptian@aut.ac.ir
Distributed generation
Microgrid
Load Sharing
Voltage and current Harmonics Compensation
SelfTuning Filter
[[1] IEEE Standard 1547.42011, “IEEE guide for design, operation, and integration of distributed resource island systems with electric power systems”, 2011. ##[2] M. Allahnoori, Sh. Kazemi, H. Abdi and R. Keyhani, “Reliability assessment of distribution systems in presence of microgrids considering uncertainty in generation and load demand”, Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 113120, 2014. ##[3] S. Chowdhury, S.P. Chowdhury and P. Crossley, Microgrids and active distribution networks, Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), London, United Kingdom, 2009. ##[4] A. Mokari, H. Seyedi, B. MohammadiIvatloo and S. Ghasemzadeh, “An improved underfrequency load shedding scheme in distribution networks with distributed generation”, Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 231, 2014. ##[5] R. C. Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan, S. Santoso and H. W. Beaty, Electrical power systems quality, (2nded), New York: McGrawHill, 2003. ##[6] A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Unger and K. Mauch, “Parallel operation of single phase inverter modules with no control interconnections”, in Proceedings of the Twelfth annual Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, pp. 94100, 1997. ##[7] J. M. Guerrero, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicuña, M. Castilla and J. Miret, “decentralized control for parallel operation of distributed generation inverters using resistive output impedance”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 9941004, 2007. ##[8] P. Sreekumar and V. Khadkikar, “A new virtual harmonic impedance scheme for harmonic power sharing in an islanded microgrid”, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 936945, 2015. ##[9] M. Guerrero, J. Matas, L. G. Vicuna, M. Castilla and J. Miret, “Wireless control strategy for parallel operation of distributed generation inverters,” IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 14611470, 2006. ##[10] D. De and V. Ramanarayanan, “decentralized parallel operation of inverters sharing unbalanced and nonlinear loads”, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 30153025, 2010. ##[11] M. Savaghebi, J.C. Vesquez, A. Jalilian, J.M. Guerrero and T. L. Lee, “Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in gridconnected microgrids,” International Journal of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation,vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 211228. 2013. ##[12] M. Cirrincione, M. Pucci and G. Vitale, “A singlephase dg generation unit with shunt active power filter capability by adaptive neural filtering”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 20932110, 2008. ##[13] W. AlSaedi, S. W. Lachowicz, D. Habibi and O. Bass, “Power quality enhancement in autonomous microgrid operation using particle swarm optimization,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 139149, 2012. ##[14] W. AlSaedi, S. W. Lachowicz, D. Habibi and O. Bass, “Voltage and frequency regulation based DG unit in an autonomous microgrid operation using Particle Swarm Optimization,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 742751, 2013. ##[15] M. Prodanovic, K. D. Brabandere, J. V. Keybus, T. C. Green and J. Driesen, “Harmonic and reactive power compensation as ancillary services in inverterbased distributed generation”, IET Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 432438, 2007. ##[16] J. He, Y. W. Li and M.S. Munir, “A flexible harmonic control approach through voltage controlled dggrid interfacing converters”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 444455, 2012. ##[17] X. Wang, F. Blaabjerg and Z. Chen, “Autonomous control of inverterinterfaced distributed generation units for harmonic current filtering and resonance damping in an islanded microgrid,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 452461, 2014. ##[18] T.L. Lee and P.T. Cheng, “Design of new cooperative harmonic filtering strategy for distributed generation interface converters in an islanding network”, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 19191927, 2007. ##[19] M. Savaghebi, J. M. Guerrero, A. Jalilian, J.C. Vasquez and TzungLin Lee, “Hierarchical control scheme for voltage harmonics compensation in an islanded droopcontrolled microgrid,” Proceedings of the IEEE Power Electronic and Drive Systems, Singapore, pp. 8994, 2011. ##[20] M. M. Hashempour, M. Savaghebi, J.C. Vasquez and J. M. Guerrero, “A control architecture to coordinate distributed generators and active power filters coexisting in a microgrid”, IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 112, 2015. ##[21] S. Anwar , A. Elrayyah and Y. Sozer, “Efficient single phase harmonics elimination method for microgrid operations”, IEEE Transaction on Industry Applications, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 33943403, 2015. ##[22] J.M. Guerrero, M. Chandorkar, T.L. Lee and P.C. Loh, “Advanced control architectures for intelligent microgrids  part ii: power quality, energy storage, and ac/dc microgrids,” IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 12631270, 2013. ##[23] H. Akagi, E.H. Watanabe and M. Aredes, Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning, WileyIEEE Press, 2007. ##[24] J.M. Guerrero, J.C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L.G. de Vicuna and M. Castilla, “Hierarchical control of droopcontrolled ac and dc microgrids  a general approach toward standardization”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 158172, 2011. ##[25] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre and A.V. Timbus, “Overview of control and grid sync hronization for distributed power generation systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 13981409, 2006. ##[26] P.C. Loh and D.G. Holmes, “Analysis of multiloop control strategies for lc/cl/lcl filtered voltage sourse and current source inverters”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 644654, 2005. ##[27] H. Song, H. Park and K. Nam, “An instantaneous phase angle detection algorithm under unbalanced line voltage condition,” in Proceedings of the 30th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Charleston, SC, pp. 533537, 1999. ##[28] M. Abdusalam, P. Poure, S. Karimi and S. Saadate, “New digital reference current generation for shunt active power filter under distorted voltage conditions”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 759765, 2009. ##[29] R. Ghanizadeh and M. Ebadian, “Improving the performance of UPQC under unbalanced and distortional load conditions: A new control method”, Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Data Mining, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 225234, 2015. ##[30] M. Ebadian, M. Talebi and R. Ghanizadeh, “A new approach based on instantaneous power theory for improving the performance of UPQC under unbalanced and distortional load conditions”, Automatika  Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 5264, 2015. ##[31] J. He and Y. W. Le, “Analysis and design of interfacing inverter output virtual impedance in a low voltage microgrid,” Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, pp. 28472864, 2010. ##[32] IEEE Standard 14592010, IEEE standard definitions for the measurement of electric power quantities under sinusoidal, no sinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced conditions, 2010.##]
An Improved Big BangBig Crunch Algorithm for Estimating ThreePhase Induction Motors Efficiency
An Improved Big BangBig Crunch Algorithm for Estimating ThreePhase Induction Motors Efficiency
2
2
Nowadays, the most generated electrical energy is consumed by threephase induction motors. Thus, in order to carry out preventive measurements and maintenances and eventually employing highefficiency motors, the efficiency evaluation of induction motors is vital. In this paper, a novel and efficient method based on Improved Big BangBig Crunch (IBBBC) Algorithm is presented for efficiency estimation in the induction motors. In order to estimate the induction motor’s efficiency, the measured current, the power factor and the input power are applied to the proposed method and an appropriate objective function is presented. The main advantage of the proposed method is efficiency evaluation of induction motor without any intrusive test. Moreover, a new effective and improved version of BBBC algorithm is introduced. The presented modifications can improve the accuracy and speed of the classic version of algorithm. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a comparison with other traditional methods and intelligent optimization algorithms is performed.
1

83
92


Mehdi
Bigdeli
Islamic Azad University
Islamic Azad University
Iran
bigdeli.mehdi@gmail.com


Davood
Azizian
Islamic Azad University
Islamic Azad University
Iran
d.azizian@abhariau.ac.ir


Ebrahim
Rahimpour
ABB AG, Power Products Division
ABB AG, Power Products Division
Iran
ebrahim.rahimpour@de.abb.com
Efficiency Estimation
Improved Big BangBig Crunch (IBBBC) Algorithm
Induction Motor
Measurement
[[1] J. S. Hsu, J. D. Kueck, M. Olszewski, D. A. Casada and P. J. Otaduy, “Comparison of induction motor field efficiency evaluation methods,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 117125, 1998. ##[2] B. Lu, T. G. Habetler and R. G. Harley, “A survey of efficiencyestimation methods for inservice induction motors,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 924933, 2006. ##[3] C. S. Gajjar, J. M. Kinyua, M. A. Khan and P. S. Barendse, “Analysis of a nonintrusive efficiency estimation technique for induction machines compared to the IEEE 112B and IEC 3421 standards,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 45414553, 2006. ##[4] M. Chirindo, M. A. Khan and P. S. 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