University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
A New Control Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter Using Instantaneous Power Theory
105
116
EN
M.
Heidari
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand
morteza.heidari@birjand.ac.ir
M. A.
Shams Nejad
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand
mshamsi@birjand.ac.ir
M.
Monfared
0000-0002-8987-0883
Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
m.monfared@um.ac.ir
10.22098/joape.2017.2592.1225
Because of installation for local consumers and since it is free of all contaminations, connecting photovoltaic cells to the grid via single-phase inverter is significantly on the rise. In this paper, a new simple current control is proposed for a single-phase grid-connected voltage source inverter. Using the PQ theory and modelling a single-phase system as an unbalanced three-phase system, a method is provided for reference current generation. In the proposed method, it is not necessary to generate a fictitious phase for the current signal. Also, the removal of adjusting filter parameters which were used to generate fictitious current signal increases the simplicity of the control system and reduces computational efforts, especially in the presence of distortion in the current. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method provides a precise and fast current control with minimum harmonic distortions.
Grid- tie inverter,Modified instantaneous power theory,Reference current generation
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_590.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_590_9736d892a2abca4e6a59d27556e5d257.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Optimal Capacitor Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Annual Costs Minimization Using Hybrid PSO and Sequential Power Loss Index Based Method
117
130
EN
A.
Bagheri
Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
a.bagheri@ut.ac.ir
R.
Noroozian
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
noroozian@znu.ac.ir
J.
Gholinezhad
West Mazandaran electrical power distribution company, Noshahr, Iran
javad.gholinezhad@gmail.com
10.22098/joape.2017.2760.1233
In the most recent heuristic methods, the high potential buses for capacitor placement are initially identified and ranked using loss sensitivity factors (LSFs) or power loss index (PLI). These factors or indices help to reduce the search space of the optimization procedure, but they may not always indicate the appropriate placement of capacitors. This paper proposes an efficient approach for the optimal capacitor placement in radial distribution networks with the aim of annual costs minimization based on the sequential placement of capacitors and calculation of power loss index. In the proposed approach, initially, the number of capacitors location is estimated using the total reactive power demand and the average range of capacitors available in the market. Then, the high potential buses can be identified using sequential power loss index-based method. This method leads to achieve the optimal or near optimal locations for the capacitors and decrease the search space of the optimization procedure significantly. The particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm takes the final decision for the optimum size and location of capacitors. To evaluate the efficiency of the conducted approach, it is tested on several well-known distribution networks, and the results are compared with those of existing methods in the literature. The comparisons verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in producing fast and optimal solutions.
Annual costs minimization,Capacitor allocation,Particle swarm optimizarion,Power loss reduction,Sequential power loss index
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_591.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_591_d7319cfcf1dbcf30e053d2a5f11dc3ef.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Control and Management of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: Review and Comparison of Methods
131
138
EN
M.
Ahangari Hassas
Department of Electrical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
stu.morteza.ahangar@iaut.ac.ir
K.
Pourhossein
Department of Electrical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
k.pourhossein@gmail.com
10.22098/joape.2017.2477.1215
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) have been introduced to overcome intermittent nature of single-source renewable energy generation. In order to utilize HRES optimally, two issues must be considered: optimal sizing and optimal operation. The first issue has been considered vastly in several articles but the second one needs more attention and work. The performance of hybrid renewable energy systems highly depends on how efficient the control of energy production is. In this paper, paradigms and common methods available for control and management of energy in HRES are reviewed and compared with each other. At the end, a number of challenges and future research in relation to HRES are addressed.
Hybrid energy systems,Control paradigm,Energy management,Renewable energy
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_592.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_592_c711bf8f03c9ab5ebfbd3e728f45a29a.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Demand Response Based Model for Optimal Decision Making for Distribution Networks
139
149
EN
M.
Khafri
Shahid Rajaee University
majid.khafri@srttu.edu
A.
Badri
Shahid Rajaee University
a_badri73@yahoo.com
A. A.
Birjandi
Shahid Rajaee University
motiebirjandi@srttu.edu
10.22098/joape.2017.2475.1214
In this paper, a heuristic mathematical model for optimal decision-making of a Distribution Company (DisCo) is proposed that employs demand response (DR) programs in order to participate in a day-ahead market, taking into account elastic and inelastic load models. The proposed model is an extended responsive load modeling that is based on price elasticity and customers’ incentives in which they participate in demand response program, voluntarily and would be paid according to their declared load curtailment amounts. It is supposed that DisCo has the ability to trade with the wholesale market and it can also use its own distributed generation (DG), while decision making process. In this regard, at first, DisCo’s optimization frameworks in two cases, with and without elastic load modelings are acquired. Subsequently, utilizing Hessian matrix and mathematical optimality conditions, optimal aggregated load curtailment amounts are obtained and accordingly, individual customer’s load reductions are calculated. Furthermore, effects of DG contributions and wholesale electricity market are investigated. An IEEE 18 bus test system is employed to obtain the results and show the accuracy of the proposed model.
Decision making,Distribution Company,Demand response,Load elasticity,Distributed generation
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_593.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_593_9b15c68ed4dc89bc3fe626e9cea67a3f.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Distributed multi-agent Load Frequency Control for a Large-scale Power System Optimized by Grey Wolf Optimizer
151
162
EN
A.
Akbarimajd
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
adelakbary@yahoo.com
M.
Olyaee
Department of Technical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
mohsenolyai@gmail.com
H.
Shayeghi
Department of Technical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
hshayeghi@gmail.com
B.
Sobhani
Department of Technical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
behrooz.sobhani@yahoo.com
10.22098/joape.2017.2522.1220
This paper aims to design an optimal distributed multi-agent controller for load frequency control and optimal power flow purposes. The controller parameters are optimized using Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm. The designed optimal distributed controller is employed for load frequency control in the IEEE 30-bus test system with six generators. The controller of each generator is considered as one agent. The controllers of agents are implemented in a distributed manner that is control rule of each agent depends on the agents’ own state and the states of their neighbors. Three other types of controllers including centralized controller, decentralized controller, and optimal centralized controller are considered for comparison. The performances of decentralized and distributed controllers are compared with two centralized controllers. In the optimal centralized controller and optimal distributed controller, the objective function is considered to achieve the objective of load frequency control as well as minimize power generation. Simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that although there is no global information of system in the optimal distributed controller, it has suitably reduced the frequency deviation. Meanwhile the power is optimally generated in the three scenarios of load increasing, load reduction and generator outage.
Load frequency control (LFC),Distributed controller,Optimal power flow (OPF),Grey wolf optimizer (GWO),Multi-agent systems
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_594.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_594_b030131136992a46bc18e989a5c4d1f0.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Evaluation of Peak Shifting and Energy Saving Potential of Ice Storage Based Air Conditioning Systems in Iran
163
170
EN
B.
Mohammadi ivatloo
University of Tabriz
ivatloo@gmail.com
M.
Nazari-Heris
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
mnazari94@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir
F.
Kalavani
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
f.kalavani93@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir
10.22098/joape.2017.2743.1231
Thermal energy storage (TES) system has been introduced as a practical facility for shifting load from peak hours to off-peak hours. Because of different energy consumption during day and night, peak and off peak period is created on load curve. Ice storage technology which is a kind of TES system, is implemented in different points of the world with the purpose of solving load shifting problem. The basic process of this technology is storing energy in the ice during off-peak hours, utilizing an air conditioning unit in which the stored energy will be utilized during day. Utilization of ice storage system is a good solution for optimizing consumption of gas and electrical energy, which will be effective in urban pollution reduction. This paper aims to introduce load shifting problem and the implemented procedures to overcome this problem from the past, analyzing ice storage system as a solution to this problem. Moreover, feasibility of the ice storage technology on a case study in Iran is discussed to show the performance and efficiency of the technology. The obtained results for the case study show that by utilizing ice storage system the consumption and the paid cost will be reduced with respect to conventional system.
Load shifting,thermal energy storage,ice storage system,air conditioning unit
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_601.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_601_f7b4ea4b9adb3448ecde9d66a167427a.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
A New Method of Distribution Marginal Price Calculation in Distribution Networks by Considering the Effect of Distributed Generations Location on Network Loss
171
180
EN
S.
Ghaemi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz
s.ghaemi93@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir
K.
Zare
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz
10.22098/joape.2017.2169.1201
The determination of practical and coherent policy to pin down the price in restructured distribution networks should be considered as a momentous topic. The present paper introduces a new method of distribution marginal price (DMP) calculation. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the DMP for both producers and consumers separately. For this purpose, the first part of the procedure emphasizes a price by which the producers should sell their power. To meet this target, the share of each node plays a significant role in the total active loss of the network. The producers will make a substantial profit when their efficiency leads to decreasing the share of the node that is associated with the total loss. In the second part of the procedure, DMP is computed for the consumers. In this part, based on the distribution system operator’s decision about the obtained profit allocated to the consumers, their payment has been reduced. This method has been applied to the 33-Bus Distribution System. The results demonstrate the characteristic of the method which tends to encourage the distributed units to increase their output powers. This is the reason why the penetration of these units in the networks is an opportunity for consumers from an economic aspect in such a way that merchandising surplus (MS) becomes zero.
Distribution Marginal Price (DMP),Distribution network,Power active loss,Distributed generation (DG),Consumer
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_595.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_595_8538d332ece2606423115c8656af9e8a.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
A Generalized Modular Multilevel Current Source Inverter
181
190
EN
E.
Seifi Najmi
Electrical Engineering Deprtment of Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University
e.seifi@azaruniv.edu
A.
Ajami
Electrical Engineering Dept. of Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University
ajami@azaruniv.edu
A. H.
Rajaei
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology
a.rajaei@sutech.ac.ir
10.22098/joape.2017.3080.1254
This paper proposes a novel topology of multilevel current source inverter which is suitable to apply in low/medium voltage. The proposed topology is capable of producing desirable bidirectional output current levels. Furthermore, it can employ symmetrical DC current sources as well as asymmetrical ones which is a significant advantage. Asymmetrical mode makes it possible to generate a great number of output levels by appropriate selection of DC current source magnitude, needless to make changes in the hardware of the inverter. As a result, various methods are presented to compute the magnitude of needed DC current sources. In comparison to the conventional H-Bridge inverter (CHB), the proposed inverter has lessened the number of required DC current sources, switches as well as related gate driver circuits. The reduced number of required components has leads to cost and volume advantages. In addition, the control layout has become simpler. Reduction of power loss as a result of reduced number of on-state switches is the other merit of the proposed inverter. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed inverter, its simulation and experimental results are extracted including results of various methods of determining DC current source magnitude.
Multilevel Current Source Inverters,Symmetric Inverter,Asymmetric Inverter,Reduced Number of Circuit Devices,Power Loss
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_596.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_596_1e164ca840cc111b3bd2029a263ed9de.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Adaptive Observer-Based Decentralized Scheme for Robust Nonlinear Power Flow Control Using HPFC
191
203
EN
A.
Mohammadpour Shotorbani
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,Iran
a.m.shotorbani@tabrizu.ac.ir
S.
Ghassem Zadeh
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,Iran
g_zadeh@tabrizu.ac.ir
B.
Mohammadi-ivatloo
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,Iran
bmohammadi@tabrizu.ac.ir
S. H.
Hosseini
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,Iran
hosseini@tabrizu.ac.ir
L.
Wang
School of Engineering, University of British Columbia
liwei.wang@ubc.ca
10.22098/joape.2017.3007.1251
This paper investigates the robust decentralized nonlinear control of power flow in a power system using a new configuration of UPFC. This structure comprises two shunt converters and one series capacitor called as hybrid power flow controller (HPFC). A controller is designed via control Lyapunov function (CLF) and adaptive observer to surmount the problems of stability such as tracking desired references, robustness against uncertainties, rejecting the disturbances, and remote data estimation. The suggested control scheme is decentralized using adaptive observer to estimate the non-local varying parameters of the system. Stability of the closed loop system is proved mathematically using Lyapunov stability theorem. Performance of the proposed finite-time controller (FT-C) is compared to another suggested exponentially convergent nonlinear controller (ECN-C) and a conventional PI controller (PI-C). Settling time of the state variables are diminished to a known little time by FT-C in comparison with ECN-C and PI-C. Simulation results are given to validate the proposed controllers. Effects of model uncertainties such as parameter variation in the transmission line and the converters are studied and properly compensated by the proposed controllers. The impact of the control gain and the communication time-delay is shown using the Bode diagram analysis.
Decentralized Control Lyapunov function,flexible AC transmission systems,Hybrid power flow controller,nonlinear control systems,robust control
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_597.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_597_a62fd740a9b3cd4c1344d016b10948ee.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage System in A Renewable-Based Microgrid Under Flexible Demand Side Management Considering Reliability and Uncertainties
205
214
EN
M.
Majidi
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
majidmajidi95@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir
S.
Nojavan
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz
sayyad.nojavan@tabrizu.ac.ir
10.22098/joape.2017.3356.1268
Utilization of energy storage system (ESS) in microgrids has turned to be necessary in recent years and now with the improvement of storage technologies, system operators are looking for an exact modeling and calculation for optimal sizing of ESS. In the proposed paper, optimal size of ESS is determined in a microgrid considering demand response program (DRP) and reliability criterion. Both larger and small-scale ESSs have their own problems. A large-scale ESS reduces microgrid operating cost but it includes higher investment costs while a small-scale ESS has less investment cost. The main goal of the proposed paper is find optimal size of ESS in which microgrid investment cost as well as operating cost are minimized. Since the renewable units may not have stable production and also because of the outages that conventional units may have, ESS is utilized and then a reliability index called reliability criterion is obtained. Furthermore, effects of reliability criterion and DRP on optimal sizing of ESS are evaluated. A mixed-integer programing (MIP) is used to model the proposed stochastic ESS optimal sizing problem in a microgrid and GAMS optimization software is used to solve it. Five study cases are studied and the results are presented for comparison.
Energy storage system,Renewable-based microgrid,Reliability criterion,Demand response program
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_598.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_598_eb8e9a2dba34502c24a2daf8a4ebe939.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Dynamic Analysis and Optimal Design of FLPSS for Power Network Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using of PSO
215
225
EN
H.
Shahsavari
Department of Electrical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
hosin.shahsavari@gmail.com
A.
Safari
Department of Electrical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
asafari1650@yahoo.com
J.
Salehi
Department of Electrical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
j.salehi@azaruniv.ac.ir
10.22098/joape.2017.3563.1282
This paper studies the theory and modeling manner of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) into power network and its effect on small signal stability. The paper demonstrates the fundamental module, mathematical analysis and small signal modeling of the SOFC connected to single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. The basic contribution of the study is to attenuate the low frequency oscillations by optimal stabilizers in the presence of SOFC. To optimize the performance of system, fuzzy logic-based power system stabilizer (FLPSS) is exploited and designed by particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed optimal stabilizers, the simulation process takes in three scenarios of operating conditions. The effectiveness of proposed PSO based FLPSS on the oscillations in the power system, including SOFC is extensively demonstrated through time-domain simulations and by comparing FLPSS with the results of other stabilizers approaches.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell,Fuzzy Logic based PSS,Small Signal Model,Particle Swarm Optimization
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_599.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_599_ee9feef47a74309f1031bdbee5d647ec.pdf
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
2322-4576
2423-4567
5
2
2017
12
01
Optimal Operation Management of Grid-connected Microgrid Using Multi-Objective Group Search Optimization Algorithm
227
239
EN
H.
Shayeghi
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
hshayeghi@gmail.com
E.
Shahryari
Department of Technical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
elnaz.shahryari@yahoo.com
10.22098/joape.2017.3659.1290
Utilizing distributed generations (DGs) near load points has introduced the concept of microgrid. However, stochastic nature of wind and solar power generation as well as electricity load makes it necessary to utilize an energy management system (EMS) to manage hourly power of microgrid and optimally supply the demand. As a result, this paper utilizes demand response program (DRP) and battery to tackle this difficulty. To do so, an incentive-based DRP has been utilized and the effects of applying DRP on microgrid EMS problem have been studied. The objective functions of microgrid EMS problem include the total cost and emission. These metrics are combined in a multi-objective formulation and solved by the proposed multi-objective group search optimization (MOGSO) algorithm. After obtaining Pareto fronts, the best compromise solution is determined by using fuzzy decision making (FDM) technique. Studies have been employed on a test microgrid composed of a wind turbine, photovoltaic, fuel cell, micro turbine and battery while it is connected to the upper-grid. Simulation results approve the efficiency of the proposed method in hourly operation management of microgrid components.
Microgrid,Demand response program,MOGSO,Fuzzy decision making,Wind turbine
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_600.html
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_600_3f66114ecbc619b957fc1abd541f0f17.pdf