Journal of Operation and Automation in Power EngineeringJournal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering
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Feed provided by Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering. Click to visit.A New Control Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter Using Instantaneous Power Theory
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_590_101.html
Because of installation for local consumers and since it is free of all contaminations, connecting photovoltaic cells to the grid via single-phase inverter is significantly on the rise. In this paper, a new simple current control is proposed for a single-phase grid-connected voltage source inverter. Using the PQ theory and modelling a single-phase system as an unbalanced three-phase system, a method is provided for reference current generation. In the proposed method, it is not necessary to generate a fictitious phase for the current signal. Also, the removal of adjusting filter parameters which were used to generate fictitious current signal increases the simplicity of the control system and reduces computational efforts, especially in the presence of distortion in the current. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method provides a precise and fast current control with minimum harmonic distortions.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Optimal Capacitor Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Annual Costs Minimization ...
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In the most recent heuristic methods, the high potential buses for capacitor placement are initially identified and ranked using loss sensitivity factors (LSFs) or power loss index (PLI). These factors or indices help to reduce the search space of the optimization procedure, but they may not always indicate the appropriate placement of capacitors. This paper proposes an efficient approach for the optimal capacitor placement in radial distribution networks with the aim of annual costs minimization based on the sequential placement of capacitors and calculation of power loss index. In the proposed approach, initially, the number of capacitors location is estimated using the total reactive power demand and the average range of capacitors available in the market. Then, the high potential buses can be identified using sequential power loss index-based method. This method leads to achieve the optimal or near optimal locations for the capacitors and decrease the search space of the optimization procedure significantly. The particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm takes the final decision for the optimum size and location of capacitors. To evaluate the efficiency of the conducted approach, it is tested on several well-known distribution networks, and the results are compared with those of existing methods in the literature. The comparisons verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in producing fast and optimal solutions.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Control and Management of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: Review and Comparison of Methods
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Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) have been introduced to overcome intermittent nature of single-source renewable energy generation. In order to utilize HRES optimally, two issues must be considered: optimal sizing and optimal operation. The first issue has been considered vastly in several articles but the second one needs more attention and work. The performance of hybrid renewable energy systems highly depends on how efficient the control of energy production is. In this paper, paradigms and common methods available for control and management of energy in HRES are reviewed and compared with each other. At the end, a number of challenges and future research in relation to HRES are addressed.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Demand Response Based Model for Optimal Decision Making for Distribution Networks
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In this paper, a heuristic mathematical model for optimal decision-making of a Distribution Company (DisCo) is proposed that employs demand response (DR) programs in order to participate in a day-ahead market, taking into account elastic and inelastic load models. The proposed model is an extended responsive load modeling that is based on price elasticity and customers’ incentives in which they participate in demand response program, voluntarily and would be paid according to their declared load curtailment amounts. It is supposed that DisCo has the ability to trade with the wholesale market and it can also use its own distributed generation (DG), while decision making process. In this regard, at first, DisCo’s optimization frameworks in two cases, with and without elastic load modelings are acquired. Subsequently, utilizing Hessian matrix and mathematical optimality conditions, optimal aggregated load curtailment amounts are obtained and accordingly, individual customer’s load reductions are calculated. Furthermore, effects of DG contributions and wholesale electricity market are investigated. An IEEE 18 bus test system is employed to obtain the results and show the accuracy of the proposed model.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Distributed multi-agent Load Frequency Control for a Large-scale Power System Optimized by Grey ...
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_594_101.html
This paper aims to design an optimal distributed multi-agent controller for load frequency control and optimal power flow purposes. The controller parameters are optimized using Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm. The designed optimal distributed controller is employed for load frequency control in the IEEE 30-bus test system with six generators. The controller of each generator is considered as one agent. The controllers of agents are implemented in a distributed manner that is control rule of each agent depends on the agents’ own state and the states of their neighbors. Three other types of controllers including centralized controller, decentralized controller, and optimal centralized controller are considered for comparison. The performances of decentralized and distributed controllers are compared with two centralized controllers. In the optimal centralized controller and optimal distributed controller, the objective function is considered to achieve the objective of load frequency control as well as minimize power generation. Simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that although there is no global information of system in the optimal distributed controller, it has suitably reduced the frequency deviation. Meanwhile the power is optimally generated in the three scenarios of load increasing, load reduction and generator outage.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Evaluation of Peak Shifting and Energy Saving Potential of Ice Storage Based Air Conditioning ...
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_601_101.html
Thermal energy storage (TES) system has been introduced as a practical facility for shifting load from peak hours to off-peak hours. Because of different energy consumption during day and night, peak and off peak period is created on load curve. Ice storage technology which is a kind of TES system, is implemented in different points of the world with the purpose of solving load shifting problem. The basic process of this technology is storing energy in the ice during off-peak hours, utilizing an air conditioning unit in which the stored energy will be utilized during day. Utilization of ice storage system is a good solution for optimizing consumption of gas and electrical energy, which will be effective in urban pollution reduction. This paper aims to introduce load shifting problem and the implemented procedures to overcome this problem from the past, analyzing ice storage system as a solution to this problem. Moreover, feasibility of the ice storage technology on a case study in Iran is discussed to show the performance and efficiency of the technology. The obtained results for the case study show that by utilizing ice storage system the consumption and the paid cost will be reduced with respect to conventional system.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100A New Method of Distribution Marginal Price Calculation in Distribution Networks by Considering ...
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The determination of practical and coherent policy to pin down the price in restructured distribution networks should be considered as a momentous topic. The present paper introduces a new method of distribution marginal price (DMP) calculation. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the DMP for both producers and consumers separately. For this purpose, the first part of the procedure emphasizes a price by which the producers should sell their power. To meet this target, the share of each node plays a significant role in the total active loss of the network. The producers will make a substantial profit when their efficiency leads to decreasing the share of the node that is associated with the total loss. In the second part of the procedure, DMP is computed for the consumers. In this part, based on the distribution system operator’s decision about the obtained profit allocated to the consumers, their payment has been reduced. This method has been applied to the 33-Bus Distribution System. The results demonstrate the characteristic of the method which tends to encourage the distributed units to increase their output powers. This is the reason why the penetration of these units in the networks is an opportunity for consumers from an economic aspect in such a way that merchandising surplus (MS) becomes zero.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100A Generalized Modular Multilevel Current Source Inverter
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This paper proposes a novel topology of multilevel current source inverter which is suitable to apply in low/medium voltage. The proposed topology is capable of producing desirable bidirectional output current levels. Furthermore, it can employ symmetrical DC current sources as well as asymmetrical ones which is a significant advantage. Asymmetrical mode makes it possible to generate a great number of output levels by appropriate selection of DC current source magnitude, needless to make changes in the hardware of the inverter. As a result, various methods are presented to compute the magnitude of needed DC current sources. In comparison to the conventional H-Bridge inverter (CHB), the proposed inverter has lessened the number of required DC current sources, switches as well as related gate driver circuits. The reduced number of required components has leads to cost and volume advantages. In addition, the control layout has become simpler. Reduction of power loss as a result of reduced number of on-state switches is the other merit of the proposed inverter. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed inverter, its simulation and experimental results are extracted including results of various methods of determining DC current source magnitude.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Adaptive Observer-Based Decentralized Scheme for Robust Nonlinear Power Flow Control Using HPFC
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This paper investigates the robust decentralized nonlinear control of power flow in a power system using a new configuration of UPFC. This structure comprises two shunt converters and one series capacitor called as hybrid power flow controller (HPFC). A controller is designed via control Lyapunov function (CLF) and adaptive observer to surmount the problems of stability such as tracking desired references, robustness against uncertainties, rejecting the disturbances, and remote data estimation. The suggested control scheme is decentralized using adaptive observer to estimate the non-local varying parameters of the system. Stability of the closed loop system is proved mathematically using Lyapunov stability theorem. Performance of the proposed finite-time controller (FT-C) is compared to another suggested exponentially convergent nonlinear controller (ECN-C) and a conventional PI controller (PI-C). Settling time of the state variables are diminished to a known little time by FT-C in comparison with ECN-C and PI-C. Simulation results are given to validate the proposed controllers. Effects of model uncertainties such as parameter variation in the transmission line and the converters are studied and properly compensated by the proposed controllers. The impact of the control gain and the communication time-delay is shown using the Bode diagram analysis.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage System in A Renewable-Based Microgrid Under Flexible Demand ...
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_598_101.html
Utilization of energy storage system (ESS) in microgrids has turned to be necessary in recent years and now with the improvement of storage technologies, system operators are looking for an exact modeling and calculation for optimal sizing of ESS. In the proposed paper, optimal size of ESS is determined in a microgrid considering demand response program (DRP) and reliability criterion. Both larger and small-scale ESSs have their own problems. A large-scale ESS reduces microgrid operating cost but it includes higher investment costs while a small-scale ESS has less investment cost. The main goal of the proposed paper is find optimal size of ESS in which microgrid investment cost as well as operating cost are minimized. Since the renewable units may not have stable production and also because of the outages that conventional units may have, ESS is utilized and then a reliability index called reliability criterion is obtained. Furthermore, effects of reliability criterion and DRP on optimal sizing of ESS are evaluated. A mixed-integer programing (MIP) is used to model the proposed stochastic ESS optimal sizing problem in a microgrid and GAMS optimization software is used to solve it. Five study cases are studied and the results are presented for comparison.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Dynamic Analysis and Optimal Design of FLPSS for Power Network Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_599_101.html
This paper studies the theory and modeling manner of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) into power network and its effect on small signal stability. The paper demonstrates the fundamental module, mathematical analysis and small signal modeling of the SOFC connected to single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. The basic contribution of the study is to attenuate the low frequency oscillations by optimal stabilizers in the presence of SOFC. To optimize the performance of system, fuzzy logic-based power system stabilizer (FLPSS) is exploited and designed by particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed optimal stabilizers, the simulation process takes in three scenarios of operating conditions. The effectiveness of proposed PSO based FLPSS on the oscillations in the power system, including SOFC is extensively demonstrated through time-domain simulations and by comparing FLPSS with the results of other stabilizers approaches. Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Optimal Operation Management of Grid-connected Microgrid Using Multi-Objective Group Search ...
http://joape.uma.ac.ir/article_600_101.html
Utilizing distributed generations (DGs) near load points has introduced the concept of microgrid. However, stochastic nature of wind and solar power generation as well as electricity load makes it necessary to utilize an energy management system (EMS) to manage hourly power of microgrid and optimally supply the demand. As a result, this paper utilizes demand response program (DRP) and battery to tackle this difficulty. To do so, an incentive-based DRP has been utilized and the effects of applying DRP on microgrid EMS problem have been studied. The objective functions of microgrid EMS problem include the total cost and emission. These metrics are combined in a multi-objective formulation and solved by the proposed multi-objective group search optimization (MOGSO) algorithm. After obtaining Pareto fronts, the best compromise solution is determined by using fuzzy decision making (FDM) technique. Studies have been employed on a test microgrid composed of a wind turbine, photovoltaic, fuel cell, micro turbine and battery while it is connected to the upper-grid. Simulation results approve the efficiency of the proposed method in hourly operation management of microgrid components.Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100