Synchronization of Microgrid Considering the Dynamics of V2Gs Using an Optimized Fractional Order Controller based Scheme

Document Type : Research paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran


In this work, a new control scheme for synchronization of AC microgrids with upstream power grid is presented. The effects of V2Gs (vehicle to grid) dynamics on synchronization process is studied. This new control approach is based on the optimal fractional calculus and has been developed for synchronization of the microgrid. The V2Gs effect on the dynamics of the microgrid is analyzed through small signal stability and simulations. This effect is also considered in synchronization process by considering a PHEV-dominated-microgrid. The proposed control scheme is a coordinated control of distributed resources and provides a soft and reliable synchronization for microgrid. In the proposed control scheme, the fractional order proportional-integral-derivative (FOPID) controllers have optimally been tuned and implemented using the genetics algorithm (GA). The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in soft and swift synchronization of the microgrid.


Main Subjects

[1]    B. Shalali and G. Shahgholian, “Design and analysis of a fast and robust SMC controller with multi-slope sliding surface for three-level NPC single phase inverter for various loads and the reduction”, Iran. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 55, 2017.
[2]    H. Alipour et al., “Asymptotical stability of four-wheel electric vehicle using a three-layer and SMC controller”, Iran. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 43, 2015.
[3]    M. Veisi et al, “Designing of a robustly stable optimal fuzzy controller for stabilizing speed of electric vehicle in presence of parametric uncertainties and external disturbances”, Iran. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 10, 2019.
[4]    M. Barnes et al, “Real-world microgrid: an overview”, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst. Eng., pp. 1-8., 2007.
[5]    M. Vallem, D. Jensen and J. Mitra, “Reliability evaluation and need based storage assessment for surety microgrids”, Proc. North Amer. Power Syms., 2006.
[6]    P. Mercier, R. Cherkaoui and A. Oudalov, “Optimizing a battery energy storage system for frequency control application in an isolated power system”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 24, pp. 1469-1477, 2009.
[7]    H. Hwang and L. Gilbert, “Synchronization of wind turbine generators against an infinite bus under gusting wind conditions”, IEEE Trans. Power Appl. Syst., vol. 97, pp. 536-544, 1978.
[8]    Y. Yang, G. Shang and Y. Fang, “A fast following synchronizer of generators”, IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 3, pp. 765-769, 1988.
[9]    L. Gross, L. Anderson and R. Young, “Avoid generator and system damage due to a slow synchronizing breaker”, in Proc. 24th Annu. Western Protective Relay Conf., pp. 1-20, 1997.
[10]    R. Evans, “Amanual/automatic synchronization circuit for a 37.5MVA steam-turbine-driven generator”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 26, pp. 1081-1085, 1990.
[11]    N. Stringer, “Voltage considerations during generator synchronizing,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, pp. 526-529, 1999.
[12]    C. Jin, M. Gao, X. Lv and M. Chen, “A seamless transfer strategy of islanded and grid-connected mode switching for microgrid based on droop control, “IEEE Energy Convers. Congress Exposition, pp. 969-973, 2012.
[13]    T. Sezi, “A new method for measuring power system frequency”, IEEE Conf. Distrib., pp. 400-405, 1999.
[14]    M. Begovic, P. Djuric, S. Dunlap and A. Phadke, “Frequency tracking in power networks in the presence of harmonics”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 8, pp. 480-486, 1993.
[15]    J. Yang and C. Liu, “A precise calculation of power system frequency and phasor”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 494-499, 2000.
[16]    C. Cho et al., “New ideas for a soft synchronizer applied to CHP cogeneration”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 26, pp. 11-26, 2011.
[17]    J. Simpson, F. Dörfler and F. Bullo, “Synchronization and power sharing for droop-controlled inverters in islanded microgrids”, Int. Federation Autom. Control, vol.49, pp. 2603-2611, 2013.
[18]    A. Bellini, S. Bifaretti and F. Giannini, “A robust synchronization method for centralized microgrids”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., pp. 4587-94, 2014.
[19]    C. Cho et al., “Active synchronizing control of a microgrid”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, pp. 3707-19, 2011.
[20]     J. Giraldo, E. Nava and N. Quijano, “Synchronization of isolated microgrids with a communication infrastructure using energy storage systems”, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 63, pp. 71-82, 2014.
[21]    S. Taher, M. Zolfaghari, C. Cho and M. Shahidehpour, “A new approach for soft synchronization of microgrid using robust control theory”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 32, pp. 1370-1381, 2017.
[22]    S. Coman et al., “Fractional order control for DC electrical drives in networked control systems”, 12th Int. Conf. Optim. Electr. Electron. Equip., 2010.
[23]    S. Ratrout et al., “Optimization methods in fractional order control of electric drives: A comparative study”, 10th Int. Symp. Mechatronics its Appl., 2015.
[24]    E. Sahin et al., “A PSO optimized fractional-order PID controller for a PV system with DC-DC boost converter”, Power Electron. Motion Control Conf. Exposition, 2014.
[25]    S. Taher et al., “Fractional order PID controller design for LFC in electric power systems using imperialist competitive algorithm”, Ain Shams Eng. J., vol. 5, pp. 121-135, 2014.
[26]    I. Pan et al., “Frequency domain design of fractional order PID controller for AVR system using chaotic multi-objective optimization”, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 51, pp. 106-118, 2013.
[27]    M. Wanik et al., “Simplified dynamic model of photovoltaic generation system for grid integration studies”, 5th Int. Conf. Intell. Adv. Syst., 2014.
[28]    M. Saadawi et al, “A proposed dynamic model of photovoltaic-DG system”, Proc. 1st Int. Nucl. Renewable Energy Conf., 2010.
[29]    M. Villalva et al., “Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, 2009.
[30]    E. Muljadi, M. Singh and V. Gevorgian, “User guide for PV dynamic model simulation written on PSCAD platform”,
[31]    G. Dileep and S. Singh, “Maximum power point tracking of solar photovoltaic system using modified perturbation and observation method”, Renewable Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 50, pp. 109-129. 2015.
[32]    R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, M. Liserre and P. Loh, “Proportional-resonant controllers and filters for grid-connected voltage-source converters”, IEEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153, 2006.
[33]    M. Karrari and O. Malik, “Identification of heffron-hillips model parameters for synchronous generators using online measurement,” IEEE Proc. Gener., Transm. Distrib., vol. 151, pp. 313-320, 2004.
[34]    P. Kundor, “Power system stability and control”, McGraw Hill, pp. 780-808, 1994,
[35]    M. Ceraolo, “New dynamical models of lead–acid batteries”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 15, 2000.
[36]    J. Gissing et al., “Optimal control of series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considering the cabin heat demand”, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 24, 2016.
[37]    The Mathworks, “MATLAB/SIMULINK”, Release, 2016.
[38]    L. Chaib et al., “Optimal design and tuning of novel fractional order PID power system stabilizer using a new metaheuristic Bat algorithm”, Ain Shams Eng. J., vol. 8, pp. 113-125, 2017.
[39]    P. Kumar et al., “Optimal design of robust FOPID for the flight control system using multi-objective differential evolution”, Proc. RAECS UIET Panjab Univ. Chandigarh, 2015.
[40]    Podlubny, “Fractional Differential Equations”, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.
[41]    A. Khorshidi, M. Zolfaghari and M. Hejazi, “Dynamic modeling and simulation of microturbine generating system for stability analysis in microgrid networks”, Int. J. Basic Sci. Appl. Res.. vol. 3, pp. 663-670, 2014.
[42]    M. Zolfaghari et al., “A fractional order proportional-integral controller design to improve load sharing between DGs in microgrid”, Smart Grids Conf., 2016.
[43]    M. Zolfaghari et al., “A model predictive control based virtual active power filter using V2G technology”, Int. J. Electr., Comput., Energetic, Electron. Commun. Eng., vol. 11, pp. 954-962, 2017.
[44]    M. Zolfaghari, G. Gharehpetian and M. Abedi, “A repetitive control-based approach for power sharing among boost converters in DC microgrids”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 7, pp. 168-175, 2019.
[45]    F. Babaei and A. Safari, “SCA based fractional-order PID controller considering delayed EV aggregators”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 8, pp. 75-85, 2020.
[46]    H. Radmanesh and M. Saeidi, “Stabilizing microgrid frequency by linear controller design to increase dynamic response of diesel generator frequency control loop”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vo. 7, pp. 216-226, 2019.