This paper proposes a robust state feedback controller for Electric Vehicle aggregators to solve the challenging problem caused by the participation of Electric Vehicles in the load frequency control of the power system. The Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method is used to achieve two objectives of the robust performance and stability. Then, by using teaching learning based optimization algorithm, both primary and secondary participation gains of EV aggregators in LFC are optimally determined. The Generation Rate Constraint and time delay, as nonlinear elements, are also taken into account. Simulations are carried out on two nonlinear power systems by using the power system simulation software. The results show that the designed controller gives a desirable robust performance for frequency regulation at the presence of uncertainties.
Izadkhast et al, “An aggregate model of plug-in electric vehicles including distribution network characteristics for primary frequency control”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 2987-98, 2016.
Izadkhast et al, “Design of plug-in electric vehicle's frequency-droop controller for primary frequency control and performance assessment”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2017.
Janjic et al, “Commercial electric vehicle fleet scheduling for secondary frequency control”, Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 147, pp. 31-41, 2017.
Ota et al, “Autonomous distributed V2G (vehicle-to-grid) satisfying scheduled charging”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 559-64, 2012.
Vachirasricirikul and I. Ngamroo, “Robust LFC in a smart grid with wind power penetration by coordinated V2G control and frequency controller”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 371-380, 2014.
Falahati Aliabadi, S. Taher, and M. Shahidehpour, “Smart deregulated grid frequency control in presence of renewable energy resources by EVs charging control”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1073-85, 2018.
Zecchino et al, “Large-scale provision of frequency control via V2G: The Bornholm power system case”, Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 170, pp. 25-34, 2019.
Falahati, S. Taher, and M. Shahidehpour, “Grid secondary frequency control by optimized fuzzy control of electric vehicles”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5613-21, 2018.
Ko and D. Sung, “The effect of EV aggregators with time-varying delays on the stability of a load frequency control system”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 669-680, 2018.
Das et al, “High-performance robust controller design of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for frequency regulation of smart grid using linear matrix inequality approach”, IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 116911-24, 2019.
Aravindh et al, “Design of observer-based non-fragile load frequency control for power systems with electric vehicles”, ISA Trans., vol. 91, pp. 21-31, 2019.
Zhou, H. Zeng, and H. Xiao, “Load frequency stability analysis of time-delayed multi-area power systems with EV aggregators based on bessel-legendre inequality and model reconstruction technique”, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 99948-55, 2020.
Khamari, R. Sahu, and S. Panda, “A modified moth swarm algorithm-based hybrid fuzzy PD–PI controller for frequency regulation of distributed power generation system with electric vehicle”, J. Control, Autom. Electr. Syst., vol. 31, pp. 675-92, 2020.
Khamari, R. K. Sahu, and S. Panda, “Adaptive differential evolution based PDF plus (1+ PI) controller for frequency regulation of the distributed power generation system with electric vehicle”, Int. J. Ambient Energy, pp. 1-15, 2020.
Naveed, Ş. Sönmez, and S. Ayasun, “Impact of electric vehicle aggregator with communication time delay on stability regions and stability delay margins in load frequency control system”, J. Modern Power Syst. Clean Energy, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 595-601, 2021.
Babaei and A. Safari, “SCA based fractional-order PID controller considering delayed EV aggregators”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 75-85, 2020.
Babaei, A. Safari, and J. Salehi, “Evaluation of delays-based stability of LFC systems in the presence of electric vehicles aggregator”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 165-174, 2022.
Ebenbauer and F. Allgower, “Stability analysis for time-delay systems using rekasius's substitution and sum of squares”, Decision Control, 2006 45th IEEE Conf., 2006.
Peng and J. Zhang, “Delay-distribution-dependent load frequency control of power systems with probabilistic interval delays”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 3309-17, 2016.
Gu, J. Chen, and V. Kharitonov, “Stability of time-delay systems”,Springer Sci. Business Media, 2003.
Boyd et al, “Linear matrix inequalities in system and control theory”, Philadelphia: Soc. Ind. Appl. Math., 1994.
Gorripotu et al, “TLBO algorithm optimized fractional-order PID controller for AGC of interconnected power system”, Soft Comput. Data Analytics, pp. 847-855, 2019.
Sahu et al, “A novel hybrid LUS–TLBO optimized fuzzy-PID controller for load frequency control of multi-source power system”, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 74, pp. 58-69, 2016.
Chicco and A. Mazza, “Heuristic optimization of electrical energy systems: Refined metrics to compare the solutions”, Sustain. Energy, Grids Net., vol. 17, p. 100197, 2019.
Lu, C. Liu, and C. Wu, “Effect of battery energy storage system on load frequency control considering governor deadband and generation rate constraint”, IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 555-561, 1995.
Kundur, N. Balu, and M. Lauby, “Power system stability and control”, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Hiskens, “IEEE PES task force on benchmark systems for stability controls”, Tech. Rep., 2013.
Malek, S., Khodabakhshian, A., & Hooshmand, R. (2023). A New Robust Load Frequency Controller for Electric Vehicle Aggregators . Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, 11(2), 83-93. doi: 10.22098/joape.2023.9749.1682
S. Malek; A. Khodabakhshian; R. Hooshmand. "A New Robust Load Frequency Controller for Electric Vehicle Aggregators ". Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, 11, 2, 2023, 83-93. doi: 10.22098/joape.2023.9749.1682
Malek, S., Khodabakhshian, A., Hooshmand, R. (2023). 'A New Robust Load Frequency Controller for Electric Vehicle Aggregators ', Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, 11(2), pp. 83-93. doi: 10.22098/joape.2023.9749.1682
Malek, S., Khodabakhshian, A., Hooshmand, R. A New Robust Load Frequency Controller for Electric Vehicle Aggregators . Journal of Operation and Automation in Power Engineering, 2023; 11(2): 83-93. doi: 10.22098/joape.2023.9749.1682