Document Type : Research paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran‎


The power systems operation has encountered some challenges due to the increasing penetration rate of renewable energy sources. One of the main challenges is the intermittency of these resources, which causes power balance violations. On the other hand, there are various distributed energy resources (DERs) to compensate for the need for the ramp capacity. Hence, to indicate this issue, the energy storage systems and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads are selected in the form of a DER aggregator (DERA) to participate in the day-ahead (DA) energy and flexible ramping product (FRP) markets in this paper. Therefore, a co-optimization method is used to model the aggregator’s decision-making, as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach, in both the markets. The obtained results revealed that the profit of the DERA increases by considering not only its participation in the joint energy and FRP markets but also the potential of the HVAC loads. Moreover, the accuracy of the model is investigated using the sensitivity analysis of the parameters, including deployment probability, customers’ welfare, and the allowed temperature deviation.


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