Document Type : Research paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran


Due to the increasing occurrence of natural disasters, importance of maintaining sustainable energy for cities and society is felt more than ever. On the other hand, power loss reduction is a challenging issue of active distribution networks (ADNs). Therefore, the distribution network operators (DNOs) should have a certain view on these two problems in today’s smart grids. In this paper, a new convex optimization model is proposed with two objective functions including energy loss reduction in normal operating mode and system load shedding minimization in critical conditions after the occurrence of natural disasters. This purpose is fulfilled through optimal allocation of distributed generation (DG) units from both conventional and renewable types as well as energy storage systems (ESSs). In addition, a new formulation has been derived to form optimal micro-grids (MGs) aiming at energy loss reduction in normal operating condition and resiliency index improvement under emergency situations. The developed model is implemented in GAMS software and the studies have been tested and analyzed on the IEEE 33-bus system. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy loss reduction as well as resilience enhancement in extreme operation condition following severe disruptions in the system.


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