Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of informatics, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Medan Area, Medan, Indonesia

2 Department of Engineering/Mazaya university college/ Iraq

3 Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, Al-Manara College For Medical Sciences, (Maysan), Iraq

4 Al-Hadi University College /Baghdad,10011, Iraq

5 College of Computer/ National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq

6 Department of Medical Laboratories Technology/ AL-Nisour University College/ Baghdad/ Iraq

7 Division of advanced nano material technologies, Scientific Research Center, Al-Ayen, University,Thi-Qar, Iraq

8 Faculty of Finance and Accounting, Assistant of the department of "Finance" Tashkent State University of Economics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

9 Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Aceh, Indonesia

10 10Associate Professor, Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Department of Energy Saving and Automation , Almaty , Republic of Kazakhstan


Solar panel collectors are considered a highly promising technology for renewable energy in urban areas. In this study, the optimization of solar collector orientation to achieve maximum energy efficiency in Sohar, Oman, and Hillah, Iraq, is investigated. A novel approach is introduced, where optimal deflection angles are determined using a mathematical optimization model, incorporating rigorous numerical calculations based on sun position, solar radiation models, and non-isotropic models. Dynamic variations in solar radiation patterns are revealed, emphasizing the significance of tailored approaches. Optimal tilt angles are identified in Sohar and Hillah, resulting in notable increases in annual energy intake. Additionally, nuanced insights into solar panel orientation optimization are provided through the inclusion of non-isotropic models. The numerical findings illustrate a dynamic interaction among monthly, seasonal, and yearly fluctuations in solar radiation patterns, underscoring the importance of tailored approaches. In Sohar and Hillah, optimal tilt angles are identified, demonstrating significant enhancements in annual energy intake when aligned with these variations. Moreover, the incorporation of non-isotropic models offers nuanced insights into the influence of azimuth angles on radiant energy, stressing the necessity to optimize solar panel orientation toward the equator for improved energy capture. The outcomes indicate a boost of 22%, 8%, and 4% in Sohar, achieved by aligning panels with optimal angles for optimal monthly, seasonal, and yearly performance, respectively. Similarly, in Hillah, a corresponding increase of 23%, 9%, and 4% is observed. Importantly, the study emphasizes that the zenith of energy reception aligns with a zero azimuth angle. As the azimuth angle deviates from zero, both positively and negatively, the quantity of received energy exhibits a proportional increase. The findings contribute to the advancement of solar energy optimization and offer valuable insights for the design of sustainable solar energy systems in urban environments.


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