Characterization of Power Transformer Electromagnetic Forces Affected by Winding Faults

Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani university, Tabriz, Iran. Email:

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran


Electromagnetic forces in power transformer windings are produced by interaction between the leakage fluxes and current passing them. Since the leakage flux distribution along the windings height is in two axial and radial directions, so the electromagnetic forces have two components, radial and axial. There is a risk that a large electromagnetic force due to the short circuit or inrush currents, can cause the windings to be deform, rupture, and/or displace, if the transformer and winding holders structure is not designed or assembled properly. Also, these mechanical changes can damage insulation between two or more adjacent turns of a winding and so, produce the local inter-turn fault. Occurrence of any fault in windings will change the electromagnetic force distribution in transformers and will cause developing secondary faults. Hence, this contribution is aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic forces behavior in power transformers and determines the changes of force values after occurring winding mechanical and inter-turn. The study keeps at disposal a two-winding, three phase, 8 MVA power transformer, on their windings faults are imposed and investigated through the FEM analysis. The accuracy of the created FEM model is firstly validated using analytical methods for transformer healthy condition, and then the winding shorted turn fault along with the mechanical faults are considered using 3D FEM model. The extracted characteristic signatures attained to different type of winding faults is expected to be useful at the design stage of power transformers.


Main Subjects

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Volume 6, Issue 1
June 2018
Pages 40-49
  • Receive Date: 17 June 2016
  • Revise Date: 28 July 2017
  • Accept Date: 20 September 2017
  • First Publish Date: 01 June 2018