DC Microgrid Protection in the Presence of the Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems

Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 University of Zanjan


In recent years, most of the loads and distributed generations are connected to the AC grid through the power electronic converters. Using the DC grid beside the AC grid can reduce the conversion stages and power losses. Protection of the DC grids is a challenging issue because of the new structures of DC grids and fast transients of the DC faults. This paper studies the protection of the low voltage DC (LVDC) system in the presence of the photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage systems (ESS). An LVDC system consisting of a DC microgrid is considered and Different operating modes are analyzed. DC faults behavior and protection challenges are discussed for each mode through simulations employing MATLAB software. Finally, some methods are presented to solve the protection challenges. The results show that changing the protection arrangement of the system and choosing suitable control logics for the ESS and the PV prevent the unwanted outage of the loads and provide the possibility of the microgrid operation in islanded mode.


Main Subjects

[1]   A. T. Elsayed, A. A. Mohamed, and O. A. Mohammed, “DC microgrids and distribution systems: An overview,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 119, pp. 407-417, 2015.
[2]   M. E. Baran and N. R. Mahajan, “DC distribution for industrial systems: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1596-1601, 2003.
[3]   M. Brenna, G. C. Lazaroiu, G. Superti-Furga, and E. Tironi, “Bidirectional front end converter for DG with disturbance insensitivity and islanding-detection capability,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 907-914, 2008.
[4]   D. Georgakis, S. Papathanassiou, N. Hatziargyriou, A. Engler, and C. Hardt, “Operation of a prototype microgrid system based on micro-sources quipped with fast-acting power electronics interfaces,” Proce. IEEE 35th Annu. Power Electron. Specialists Conf., 2004, pp. 2521-2526.
[5]   K. Mizuguchi, S. Muroyama, Y. Kuwata, and Y. Ohashi, “A new decentralized DC power system for telecommunications systems,” Proce. 12th Int. Conf.  Telecommun. Energy, 1990, pp. 55-62.
[6]   D. Salomonsson and A. Sannino, “Low-voltage DC distribution system for commercial power systems with sensitive electronic loads,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1620-1627, 2007.
[7]   Y.-S. Oh, J. Han, G.-H. Gwon, D.-U. Kim, and C.-H. Kim, “Development of fault detector for series arc fault in low voltage DC distribution system using wavelet singular value decomposition and state diagram,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 766-776, 2015.
[8]   D. Hur and R. Baldick, “An economic analysis of potential cost savings from the use of low voltage DC (LVDC) distribution network,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 812-819, 2014.
[9]   D. Afamefuna, I.-Y. Chung, D. Hur, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Cho, “A techno-economic feasibility analysis on LVDC distribution system for rural electrification in south korea,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1501-1510, 2014.
[10] G. Byeon, C.S. Hwang, J.H. Jeon, S.K. Kim, J.Y. Kim, Kim, K., B. Ko and E.S. Kim, “Complementary power control of the bipolar-type low voltage DC distribution system,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 786-794, 2015.
[11] W. Jewell and Zhouxing Hu, “The role of energy storage in transmission and distribution efficiency,” Proce. IEEE PES T&D Conf. Exposition, 2012, pp. 1-4.
[12] D. Manz, R. Piwko, and N. Miller, “Look before you leap: the role of energy storage in the grid,” IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 75-84, 2012.
[13] Q. Jiang and H. Wang, “Two-time-scale coordination control for a battery energy storage system to mitigate wind power fluctuations,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 52-61, 2013.
[14] B. P. Roberts and C. Sandberg, “The role of energy storage in development of smart grids,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1139-1144, Jun. 2011.
[15] A. Hatefi einaddin, A. Sadeghi Yazdankhah, and R. Kazemzadeh, “Power management in a utility connected micro-grid with multiple renewable energy sources,” J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-10, Jun. 2017.
[16] H. Shayeghi and E. Shahryari, “Optimal operation management of grid-connected microgrid using multi-objective group search optimization algorithm,” J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 227-239, Dec. 2017.
[17] R. Tiwari and M. Anantha Kumar, “Integration and distribution of renewable sources in DC micro grid with energy storage system,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 3, no. 3, 2014.
[18] L. K. Letting, J. L. Munda, and Y. Hamam, “Dynamic performance analysis of an integrated wind-photovoltaic microgrid with storage,” Int. J. Smart Grid Clean Energy, vol. 3, no. 3, 2014.
[19] K. Strunz, E. Abbasi, and D. N. Huu, “DC microgrid for wind and solar power integration,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 115-126, Mar. 2014.
[20] K. H. (M. Tech), “Battery energy management system for DC micro grids with fuzzy controller,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1486-1493, Jan. 1970.
[21] B. Liu, F. Zhuo, Y. Zhu, and H. Yi, “System operation and energy management of a renewable energy-based DC micro-grid for high penetration depth application,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1147-1155, May 2015.
[22] J.Y. Kim J.H. Jeon, S.K. Kim, C. Cho, J.H. Park, H.M. Kim, K.Y. Nam, “Cooperative control strategy of energy storage system and microsources for stabilizing the microgrid during islanded operation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3037-3048, Dec. 2010.
[23] Y. Zhang, H.Jie Jia, and L. Guo, “Energy management strategy of islanded microgrid based on power flow control,” Proce. IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technol., 2012, pp. 1-8.
[24] D. Shen, A. Izadian, and P. Liao, “A hybrid wind-solar-storage energy generation system configuration and control,” Proce. IEEE Energy Convers. Congr. Exposition, 2014, pp. 436-442.
[25] K. Rouzbehi, A. Miranian, J. I. Candela, A. Luna, and P. Rodriguez, “intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage,” Proce. IEEE PES T&D Conf. Exposition, 2014, pp. 1-5.
[26] A. Hooshyar and R. Iravani, “Microgrid protection,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1332-1353, 2017.
[27] J. Yang, J. E. Fletcher, and J. O’Reilly, “Multiterminal DC wind farm collection grid internal fault analysis and protection design,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2308-2318, 2010.
[28] J. Yang, J. E. Fletcher, and J. O’Reilly, “Short-circuit and ground fault analyses and location in VSC-based DC network cables,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 3827-3837, 2012.
[29] J. Candelaria and J.-D. Park, “VSC-HVDC system protection: A review of current methods,” Proce. IEEE PES Power Syst. Conf.  Exposition, 2011, pp. 1-7.
[30] M. K. Bucher, M. M. Walter, M. Pfeiffer, and C. M. Franck, “Options for ground fault clearance in HVDC offshore networks,” Proce. IEEE Energy Convers. Congr. Exposition, 2012, pp. 2880-2887.
[31] P. Kundur, N. J. Balu, and M. G. Lauby, Power system stability and control. McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[32] R. K. Mallick and R. K. Patnaik, “Fault analysis of voltage-source converter based multi-terminal HVDC transmission links,” Proce. Int. Conf. Energy Autom. Signal, 2011, pp. 1-7.
[33] J. Yang, J. Zheng, G. Tang, and Z. He, “Characteristics and recovery performance of VSC-HVDC DC transmission line fault,” Proce. Asia-Pacific Power Energy Eng. Conf., 2010, pp. 1-4.
[34] M. E. Baran and N. R. Mahajan, “Overcurrent Protection on voltage-source-converter-based multiterminal DC distribution systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 406-412, 2007.
[35] S. R. B. Vanteddu, A. Mohamed, and O. Mohammed, “Protection design and coordination of DC distributed power systems architectures,” Proce. IEEE Power  Energy Soc. Gen. Meeting, 2013, pp. 1-5.
[36] S. D. A. Fletcher, P. J. Norman, K. Fong, S. J. Galloway, and G. M. Burt, “High-speed differential protection for smart DC distribution systems,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2610-2617, 2014.
[37] J.-D. Park and J. Candelaria, “Fault detection and isolation in low-voltage DC-bus microgrid system,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 779-787, Apr. 2013.
[38] D. Wang, A. Emhemed, G. Burt, and P. Norman, “Fault analysis of an active LVDC distribution network for utility applications,” Proce. 51st Int. Univ. Power Eng. Conf., 2016, pp. 1-6.
[39] S. Dhar, R. K. Patnaik, and P. K. Dash, “Fault detection and location of photovoltaic based DC microgrid using differential protection strategy,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, pp. 1-1, 2017.
[40] N. Eghtedarpour and E. Farjah, “Control strategy for distributed integration of photovoltaic and energy storage systems in DC micro-grids,” Renew. Energy, vol. 45, pp. 96-110, Sep. 2012.
[41] Duong Minh Bui, Keng-Yu Lien, and Shi-Lin Chen, “Investigate dynamic and transient characteristics for islanded/grid-connected operation modes of microgrid and develop a fast-scalable-adaptable fault protection algorithm,” Proce. 12th IET Int. Conf.  Dev. Power Syst. Prot., 2014, p. 8.1.4-8.1.4.
[42] C. Yuan, M. A. Haj-ahmed, and M. S. Illindala, “Protection strategies for medium-voltage direct-current microgrid at a remote area mine site,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 2846-2853, Jul. 2015.
[43] M. Carminati, S. Grillo, L. Piegari, E. Ragaini, and E. Tironi, “Fault protection analysis in low voltage DC microgrids with PV generators,” Proc. Int. Conf.  Clean Electr. Power, 2015, pp. 184-191.
[44] R. Majumder, M. Dewadasa, A. Ghosh, G. Ledwich, and F. Zare, “Control and protection of a microgrid connected to utility through back-to-back converters,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 1424-1435, 2011.
[45] H. Hooshyar and M. E. Baran, “Fault analysis on distribution feeders with high penetration of PV systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 2890-2896, 2013.
[46] A. P. Moura, J. A. P. Lopes, A. A. F. de Moura, J. Sumaili, and C. L. Moreira, “IMICV fault analysis method with multiple PV grid-connected inverters for distribution systems,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 119, pp. 119-125, 2015.
[47] C. M. Franck, “HVDC circuit breakers: a review identifying future research needs,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 998-1007, 2011.
[48] M. K. Bucher and C. M. Franck, “Fault current interruption in multiterminal hvdc networks,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 87-95, 2016.
[49] M. Monadi, C. Gavriluta, A. Luna, J. I. Candela, and P. Rodriguez, “Centralized protection strategy for medium voltage DC microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 430-440, 2017.