Document Type : Research paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are used in a wide range of applications due to their high efficiency and high power density. In this paper, sensorless four-switch direct power control (DPC) method with the sector to sector commutations ripple minimization for BLDC motor control is proposed. The main features of the proposed DPC method are: (1) fast dynamic response (2) easy implementation (3) use of power feedback for motor control that is much easy to implement (4) eliminating the torque dips during sector-to sector commutations. For controlling the motor speed, a position sensorless method is used enhancing drive reliability. For reference speed tracking, a PI control is also designed and tuned based on imperialist competition algorithm (ICA) that reduces reference tracking error. The feasibility of the proposed control method is developed and analyzed by MATLAB/SIMULINK®. Simulation results prove high performance exhibited by the proposed DPC strategy.


Main Subjects

[1]    J. Gromba, “Torque control of BLDC motor for electric bicycle,” 2018 Int. Sym. Electr. Mach. (SME), 2018, pp. 1-5.
[2]    M. Jagiela, T. Garbiec, J. Gwozdz, and J. Kolodziej, “Fast steady-state field-circuit model for SMPM-BLDC motors driven from 120° and 180° quasi-square wave inverters,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1-4, Mar. 2016.
[3]    H. K. Samitha Ransara and U. K. Madawala, “A torque ripple compensation technique for a low-cost brushless dc motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 6171-6182, Oct. 2015.
[4]    M. Masmoudi, B. El Badsi, and A. Masmoudi, “Direct torque control of brushless dc motor drives with improved reliability,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3744-3753, Nov. 2014.
[5]    W. Li, J. Fang, H. Li, and J. Tang, “Position sensorless control without phase shifter for high-speed bldc motors with low inductance and nonideal back emf,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1354-1366, Feb. 2016.
[6]    M. Baszynski and S. Pirog, “Unipolar modulation for a BLDC motor with simultaneously switching of two transistors with closed loop control for four-quadrant operation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 146-155, Jan. 2018.
[7]    M. Moazen and M. Sabahi, “Electric differential for an electric vehicle with four independent driven motors and four wheels steering ability using improved fictitious master synchronization strategy,” J. Oper. Authom Power Eng., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 141-150, 2014.
[8]    S. B. Ozturk, W. C. Alexander, and H. A. Toliyat, “Direct torque control of four-switch brushless dc motor with non-sinusoidal back EMF,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 263-271, 2010.
[9]    A. G. de Castro, W. C. A. Pereira, T. E. P. de Almeida, C. M. R. de Oliveira, J. Roberto Boffino de Almeida Monteiro, and A. A. de Oliveira, “Improved finite control-set model-based direct power control of BLDC motor with reduced torque ripple,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 4476-4484, Sep. 2018.
[10]  C. K. Lad and R. Chudamani, “Simple overlap angle control strategy for commutation torque ripple minimisation in BLDC motor drive,” IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 797-807, Jul. 2018.
[11]  J. E. MuraliDhar and P. Varanasi, “A progressive rugged appearance of fuzzy controller fed four-switch BLDC drive,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 47, pp. 144-152, 2015.
[12]  B. Abdi, M. M. Teymoori, H. Gholamrezaei, and A. A. Nasiri, “A simple analog BLDC drive control for electro-mechanical energy storage system,” Energy Proce., vol. 12, pp. 1002-1007, 2011.
[13]  B. K. Lee and M. Ehsani, “Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles,” IEMDC 2001. IEEE Int. Electr. Mach. Drives Conf. (Cat. No.01EX485), pp. 246–251.
[14]  M. S. Aspalli, F. M. Munshi, and S. L. Medegar, “Speed control of BLDC motor with four switch three phase inverter using digital signal controller,” 2015 Int. Conf. Power Adv. Control Eng., 2015, pp. 371-376.
[15]  S. Hajiaghasi, A. Salemnia, and F. Motabarian, “Four switches direct power control of BLDC motor with trapezoidal back-EMF,” 2017 8th Power Electron. Drive Syst. Technol. Conf., 2017, pp. 513-518.
[16]  S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “An approach to position sensorless drive for brushless DC motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 928-933, 1991.
[17]  J. C. Moreira, “Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1394-1401, 1996.
[18]  J. X. Shen, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “Sensorless flux-weakening control of permanent-magnet brushless machines using third harmonic back EMF,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1629-1636, 2004.
[19]  T. M. Jahns, R. C. Becerra, and M. Ehsani, “Integrated current regulation for a brushless ECM drive,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 118-126, 1991.
[20]  G.-J. Su and J. W. McKeever, “Low-Cost sensorless control of brushless dc motors with improved speed range,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 296-302, 2004.
[21]  S.-H. Huh, S.-J. Seo, I. Choy, and G.-T. Park, “Design of a robust stable flux observer for induction motors,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 280-285, Jun. 2007.
[22]  M. H. Sureshjani, “An improved direct torque control for torque ripple minimization of four-switch brushless dc motor with trapezoidal back-emf,” 20th Iran. Conf. Electr. Eng., 2009.
[23]  G. Jiang, C. Xia, W. Chen, T. Shi, X. Li, and Y. Cao, “Commutation torque ripple suppression strategy for brushless dc motors with a novel noninductive boost front end,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 4274-4284, May 2018.
[24]  V. Viswanathan and J. Seenithangom, “Commutation torque ripple reduction in the BLDC motor using modified SEPIC and three-level NPC inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 535-546, 2018.
[25]  Z. Zeng, C. Zhu, X. Jin, W. Shi, and R. Zhao, “Hybrid space vector modulation strategy for torque ripple minimization in three-phase four-switch inverter-fed pmsm drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 2122-2134, Mar. 2017.
[26]  M. Masmoudi, B. El Badsi, and A. Masmoudi, “DTC of B4-inverter-fed BLDC motor drives with reduced torque ripple during sector-to-sector commutations,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4855-4865, Sep. 2014.
[27]  A. Nafar, G. R. Arab Markadeh, A. Elahi, and R. Pouraghababa, “Low voltage ride through enhancement based on improved direct power control of DFIG under unbalanced and harmonically distorted grid voltage,” J. Oper. Authom. Power Eng., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 16-28, Jun. 2016.
[28]  A. Halvaei Niasar and M. Behzadi Shahrbabak, “Direct power control of brushless DC generator for automotive applications,” Proce. 5th Annu. Int. Power Electron., Drive Syst. Technol. Conf., 2014, pp. 267-272.
[29]  P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, S. D. Sudhoff, and P. C. Krause, Analysis Electr. Mach. Drive Syst., IEEE Press, 2002.
[30]  P.Devendra, C. P. Kalyan, K. A. Mary, and Ch.Saibabu, “Simulation approach for torque ripple minimization of BLDC motor using direct torque control,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Electr. Electron. Instrum. Energy, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 3703-3710.
[31]  E. Atashpaz-Gargari and C. Lucas, “Imperialist competitive algorithm: An algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition,” Proce. 2007 IEEE Congr. Evol. Comput., 2007, pp. 4661-4667.
[32]  Z. Rafiee, A. F. Meyabadi, and H. Heydari, “PSS parameters values finding using SMVSDFT objective function and a new technique for multi-objective function in a multi-machine power system,” Int. J. Power Energy Convers., vol. 6, no. 3, 2015.
[33]  K. Sugano, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drives and Controls. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.