Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Electrical and Computer, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.

2 Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Italy.


More than one hundred countries are using wind energy due to their easy implementation, cheap energy, and high energy efficiency. Implementation of FACTS devices in Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) has been dramatically improved due to cooperative and accurate performance of FACTS devices. However, dealing with wind turbine faults promptly is crucial. Short-term and long-term faults may have excessive voltage changes and inconstant active and reactive power injection into transmission line. In this paper, robustness and flexibility of SSSC, STATCOM, and UPFC FACTS devices connecting to a 9 MW SCIG-based wind farm under different time-domain fault conditions is investigated. Variety of system scenarios under fault conditions are surveyed in order to find the best Fault Ride Through (FRT) scheme for the system. To carry out this study, same rating and capacity is considered for all three FACTS devices which are employed at the grid-connected point of WECS to mitigate FRT problem. Moreover, the best compromised control mode of FACTS devices is sought by a power flow analysis. Additionally, to obtain a more perceivable view over the technical issues related to the voltage sag support, performance of FACTS devices is analyzed and compared with each other through the paper and at the final stage. A complete digital simulation of the system is executed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the results are presented to authenticate the performance of devices.


Main Subjects

[1]    S. M. Z-Hosseini; M. O. Buygi. “How Does Large-scale Wind Power Generation Affect Energy and Reserve Prices?,” J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 169-182, 2018.
[2]    K. V. Dave, S. M. Kanani. “Use of SVS for stability improvement analysis in wind farm by SVC during fault,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res.,vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43-48, 2016
[3]    M. Moradzadeh, H. Shayeghi, L. Vandevelde and M. Saif, “Impact of increased penetration of large-scale wind farms on power system dynamic stability–A review,” Proce. IEEE 15th Int. Conf. Environ. Electr. Eng., Rome, pp. 1522-1526, 2015.
[4]    J. M. Rodriguez and J. L. Fernandez, “Incidence on power system dynamics of high penetration of fixed speed and doubly fed wind energy systems: study of the Spanish case” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, 2002.
[5]    H. S. Ko, G. G. Yoon, and W. P. Hong, “Active use DFIG-based variable- speed wind-turbine for voltage control in power system operation” J. Elect. Eng. Technol., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 254-262, 2008.
[6]    R. Grunbaum, “FACTS for grid integration of wind power” Proce. IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technol. Conf. Eur., 2010, pp. 1-8.
[7]    M. T. Hagh, “Dynamic and stability improvement of a wind farm connected to grid using UPFC,” Proce. IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Technol., 2008, pp. 1-5.
[8]    M. Ferdosian, H. Abdi and A. Bazaei, “Improved dynamic performance of wind energy conversion system by UPFC,” Proce. IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Technol., Cape Town, 2013, pp. 545-550.
[9]    Ghasemi and C. A. Canizares, “Validation of a STATCOM transient stability model through small-disturbance stability studies,” Proce. IEEE Int. Conf. Syst. Eng., San Antonio, TX, 2007, pp. 1-6.
[10]  Y. M. Alharbi and A. Abu-Siada, “Application of UPFC to improve the low-voltage-ride-through capability of DFIG,” Proce. IEEE 24th Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Buzios, 2015, pp. 665-668.
[11]  L. Gyugyi, “Unified power-flow control concept for flexible AC transmission systems,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 323-331, 1992.
[12]  J. Dixon, L. Moran, J. Rodriguez and R. Domke, “Reactive power compensation technologies: state-of-the-art review,” Proce. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 2144-2164, 2005.
[13]  C. C. A. Rajan, A. Chodisetty, K. M. Raju and T. Srikumar, “Design and simulation of STATCOM to enhance the voltage stability of a wind power system,” 2015 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Signals, Commun. Optimiz., Visakhapatnam, 2015, pp. 1-4.
[14]  S. Gautam, C. Pang and L. Yang, “Impacts of FACTS device on wind farm protection: Comparison between STATCOM and UPFC,” Proce. 7th Int. Conf. Inf. Autom. Sustain., Colombo, 2014, pp. 1-6.
[15]  S. N. Singh and A. K. David, “Placement of FACTS devices in open power market,” Proce. Int. Conf. Adv. Power Syst. Control Oper. Manag., 2000, pp. 173-177 vol.1.
[16]  N. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York, NY, USA: Wiley IEEE, 1999.
[17]  Dinh-Nhon Truong, Van-Thuyen Ngo, “Designed damping controller for SSSC to improve stability of a hybrid offshore wind farms considering time delay,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 65, pp. 425-431, 2015.
[18]  S. Raphael, A. M. Massoud, “Static synchronous series compensator for low voltage ride through capability of wind energy systems,” Proce. Int. Conf. IET Renew. Power Gener., Edinburgh (UK), pp. 1-6, 2011.
[19]  S. M. Abd Elazim, E. S. Ali, “Optimal SSSC design for damping power systems oscillations via Gravitational Search Algorithm”, Electr. Power Energy Syst., pp. 161-168, 2016.
[20]  K. K. Sen, “SSSC-static synchronous series compensator: theory, modeling, and application,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 241-246, 1998.
[21]  N. Mohan, T. Undeland, and W. Robbins, “Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design”. New York: Wiley, 2003.
[22]  H. Akagi, E. H. Watanabe, M. Aredes. “Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning” in IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 46-46, 2007.
[23]  M. E. Adabi, A. Vahedi, “A survey of shaft voltage reduction strategies for induction generators in wind energy applications,” Renew. Energy, vol. 50, pp. 177-187, 2013.
[24]  B. Ozpineci and L. M. Tolbert, “Simulink implementation of induction machine model–a modular approach,” Proce. Int. IEEE Conf. Electr. Mach. Drives, vol.2, pp. 728-734, 2003.
[25]  MEA. Farrag, GA. Putrus, L Ran, “Design of fuzzy based-rules control system for the unified power flow controller,” Proce. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 2102-2107.
[26]  M. S. El Moursi, K. Goweily, J. L. Kirtley and M. Abdel-Rahman, “Application of series voltage boosting schemes for enhanced fault ride through performance of fixed speed wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 61-71, 2014
[27]  M. Nasiri; J. Milimonfared; S. H. Fathi. “Efficient low-voltage ride-through nonlinear backstepping control strategy for PMSG-based wind turbine during the grid faults,” J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 218-228, 2018.
[28]  N. Bigdeli; E. Ghanbaryan; K. Afshar. “Low frequency oscillations suppression via cpso based damping controller,” J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-32, 2007.