Document Type : Research paper


Department of Electrical Engineering, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran


Microgrid and smart electrical grids are among the new concepts in power systems that support new technologies within themselves. Electric cars are some advanced technologies that their optimized use can increase grid efficiency. The modern electric cars sometimes, through the necessary infrastructure and proper management, can serve as an energy source to supply grid loads. This study was conducted to investigate the energy management for production and storage resources. For this purpose, we considered the market price of energy, the prices quoted by distributed generation sources, and electric vehicles in the grid and responsive loads. The load response programs used include the time of use and direct load control. The problem has a linear mixed-integer planning structure that was simulated using the GAMS software. The results show that with this planning, the proposed load response programs have a positive impact on cost reduction.


Main Subjects

[1]    K. Fell et al., “Assessment of plug-in electric vehicle integration with ISO/RTO systems”, KEMA, Inc. ISO/ RTO Council, 2010.
[2]    S. Shao, M. Pipattanasomporn and S. Rahman, “Challenges of PHEV penetration to the residential distribution network”, Power & Energy Soc. Gen. Meeting, pp. 1-8, 2009.
[3]    S. Ghaderi, A. Azadeh, B. Nokhandan and E. Fathi, “Behavioral simulation and optimization of generation companies in electricity markets by fuzzy cognitive map”, Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 39, pp. 4635-4646, 2012.
[4]    V. Haerri and R. Loetscher, “Living & mobility: assessment of V2G, V2H and stationary storage concepts for todays and future applications”, IEEE Int. Energy Conf., 2012.
[5]    P. Richardson et al, “Local versus centralized charging strategies for electric vehicles in low voltage distribution systems”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, pp. 1020-28, 2012.
[6]    M. Mohammadi and M. Rastegar, “Simultaneous determination of optimal capacity and charging profile of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots in distribution systems”, Energy, vol. 158, pp. 504-511, 2018.
[7]    O. Rahbari et al, “An optimal versatile control approach for plug-in electric vehicles to integrate renewable energy sources and smart grids”, Energy, vol. 134, pp. 1053-1067, 2017.
[8]    M. Mirzaei, A. Kazemi and O. Homaee, “A probabilistic approach to determine optimal capacity and location of electric vehicles parking lots in distribution networks”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., Vol. 12, pp.1963-1972, 2016.
[9]    N. Neyestani et al, “Allocation of plug-in vehicles' parking lots in distribution systems considering network-constrained objectives”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 30, pp. 2643-2656, 2015.      
[10]    M. Moradijoz, M. Moghaddam, M. Haghifam and E. Alishahi, “A multi-objective optimization problem for allocating parking lots in a distribution network”, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 46, pp. 115-122, 2013.  
[11]    A. Zonkoly and L. Coelho, “Optimal allocation, sizing of PHEV parking lots in distribution system”, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 67, pp. 472-477, 2015.
[12]    Ch. Loakimidis, D. Thomas, P. Rycerski and K.  Sakis, “Peak shaving and valley filling of power consumption profile in non-residential buildings using an electric vehicle parking lot”, Energy, vol. 148, pp. 148-58, 2018.
[13]    S. Aghajani and M. Kalantar, “Operational scheduling of electric vehicles parking lot integrated with renewable generation based on bilevel programming approach”, Energy, vol. 139, pp. 422-432, 2017.
[14]    S. Rezaee, E. Farjah and B. Khorramdel, “Probabilistic analysis of plug-in electric vehicles impact on electrical grid through homes and parking lots”, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 4, pp. 1024-1033, 2013.
[15]    Z. Lei and Y. Li, “A game theoretic approach to optimal scheduling of parking-lot electric vehicle charging”, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.65, pp. 4068-78, 2016.
[16]    L. Zhang and Y. Li, “Optimal management for parking-lot electric vehicle charging by two-stage approximate dynamic programming”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 8, pp.1722-1730, 2017.
[17]    M. Kuran et al, “A smart parking lot management system for scheduling the recharging of electric vehicles”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 6, pp. 2942-2953, 2015.           
[18]    E. Rezai, M. Shaaban, E. Saadany and F. Karray, “Online intelligent demand management of plug-in electric vehicles in future smart parking lots”, IEEE Syst. J., vol.10, pp.483-494, 2016.
[19]    U. Chukwu and S. Mahajan, “V2G parking lot with PV rooftop for capacity enhancement of a distribution system”, IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 5, pp. 119-127, 2014.
[20]    M. Honarmand, A. Zakariazadeh and S. Jadid, “Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid”, Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 86, pp. 745-755, 2014.
[21]    M. Honarmand, A. Zakariazadeh and S. Jadid, “Optimal scheduling of electric vehicles in an intelligent parking lot considering vehicle-to-grid concept and battery condition”, Energy, vol. 65, pp. 572-579, 2014. 
[22]    J. Jannati, D. Nazarpour; “Optimal energy management of the smart parking lot under demand response program in the presence of the electrolyser and fuel cell as hydrogen storage system”, Energy Convers. Manage., vol.138, pp. 659-669, 2017.
[23]    V. Amir, Sh. Jadid and M. Ehsan, “Operation of multi Carrier microgrid (MCMG) considering demand response”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol.7, pp. 119-128, 2019.
[24]    H. Kermani, H. Najafi, A. Moghaddam and J. Guerrero, “Optimal Decision Making Framework of an Electric Vehicle Aggregator in Future and Pool markets”, J. Oper. Autom. Power Eng., vol.6, pp. 157-168, 2018.
[25]    N. Morsy, S. Sayed, A. Abdelfatah, F.Csaba, “Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles According to Electricity Price”, Int. Conf. Innovative Trends Comput. Eng., pp. 432-437, 2019.
[26]    S. Chen, H. Gooi and M. Wang, “Sizing of energy storage for microgrids”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, pp. 142-151, 2012.     
[27]    L. Fernandez et al, “Assessment of the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on distribution networks”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, pp. 206-213,2011.
[28]    W. Gu et al, “Modeling, planning and optimal energy management of combined cooling, heating and power microgrid: A review,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol.54, pp.26-37, 2014.
[29]    Iran’s Meteorological Organization, “Historical wind speed and solar radiation data”,