Document Type : Research paper


Electrical engineering department, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, India


Nowadays, the centralized power system is changing to a distributed system, and various energy management systems are being installed for efficient functioning. Load side management is a vital aspect of the energy management of the power network. As residential demand is growing at a high rate, domestic customers play a crucial role in the successful implementation of demand response (DR) programs. This paper considers a single customer having a home energy management system (HEMS) for thermostatic and non-thermostatic characteristics-based appliances, photovoltaic panels, an electric vehicle, and a battery energy storage system. The effect of various DR strategies has been discussed. A mixed-integer linear programming-based model of a HEMS is modulated and solved to minimize the electricity consumption cost by employing a real-time price-based DR program using dynamic power import limits. An incentive-based DR program is considered for reducing the energy demand and maintaining the energy balance during peak hours, and peak pricing-based dynamic power import limiting DR programs are included for load shaping. The effect of load shaping on the peak to average ratio is also discussed in different scenarios. Finally, the total electricity price is calculated and analyzed by considering other test cases based on the inclusion/rejection of the mentioned DR programs.


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